The findings pertained to the following themes; bias (focus of 5 studies), stigma (focus of 4 studies), negative attitudes (focus of 3 studies), stereotyping (focus of 2 studies), empathy (focus of 3 studies), and knowledge and skills deficits (focus of 3 studies) among healthcare providers, along with one study measuring attitudes towards using EBP. Overall, decreases in negative attitudes, stigma, and bias, and an increase in empathy were found in the studies that pertained to those topics. Only 1 study suggested an
DECREASING STIGMA AND IMPROVING THERAPEUTIC 13 increase in stigma and stereotyping as it relates to social distancing of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Two studies looked at rating scales or measures to determine effectiveness of interventions to increase empathy and decrease negative attitudes and bias, while one rated a scale to determine attitudes toward the use of EBP. The theoretical frameworks were identified accordingly; 7 articles utilized Bandura’s Self-efficacy Model, 2 used Wagner’s Chronic Care Model, and 1 used Meyer’s Minority Stress Model. The studies relied on questionnaires, pre- post-tests, empathy scales, narrative synthesis, structured engagement, and specifically the Likert scale, Kuger & Casey Qualitative Analysis, and the Implicit Association Test (Appendix A). ANOVA, MANOVA, Chi-Square tests, paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, Bartlett’s test of Sphericity, Chronbach’s Alpha test, Confidence Intervals, and Inter-Rater Reliability were all utilized in the studies. We can conclude that educational interventions to create awareness of psychiatric etiology, pathology and treatment modalities do have a positive impact on stigma and empathy. The research describes real-time changes of decreased stigma and increased empathy and confidence on the part of nurses following educational programs. Measures exist that can accurately assess stigma and empathy. These measures not only provide proof of bias, they validate the success of interventions based on positive results. Educational interventions to help nurses understand a psychiatric patient’s experience has empowered nurses to provide care with increased confidence and understanding, thereby decreasing stigma and increasing empathy. Purpose StatementPsychiatric patients in crisis are utilizing EDs at an increasing rate. The nurses they encounter are faced with delivering treatment that is based on knowledge the nurses feel they lack, and understanding and empathy the nurses struggle to conceptualize. The purpose of this paper was to determine if educating
DECREASING STIGMA AND IMPROVING THERAPEUTIC 14 ER nurses on the etiology and pathology of psychiatric symptoms, treatment modalities, along with the positive effects of empathy, would affect nurse stigma and empathy towards the mentally ill.