Fear of spiders and snakes more than electricity and

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Fear of spiders and snakes more than electricity and guns Gender differences in sexuality Gender Differences in Sexuality Men tend to think about sex more Men have a lower threshold for perceiving a warm response as a sexual come on Friendliness   wants to have sex with me Natural Selection Males Mate with multiple females Look for youthful appearing females Females Select one mate Look for maturity, dominance, affluence, and boldness Evolutionary Perspective Acknowledge more gender similarities than differences Attractiveness varies somewhat with time and place Social expectations van shape gender differences in mate preferences Learning Operant Learning Learning to associate a response (or behavior) with a consequence
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Likelihood of response is based on consequence Law of Effect Responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated, whereas, those followed by  negative outcomes are not B.F. Skinner   Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment Reinforcement Event/stimulus that increases the likelihood that a behavior will happen again Positive   add something positive Negative   remove an aversive stimulus Punishment Event/stimulus that decrease frequency of behavior Positive   add something negative Negative   remove something positive Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement   consequence given every time Partial reinforcement Fixed-ratio   consequence follows set # of responses Variable-ratio   # of response needed varies Fixed-interval   reinforced after a set amount of time Variable-interval   amount of time needed varies Observational Learning
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Learning by observing others Modeling – observing and mimicking a specific behavior Bandura Conducted the Bobo doll experiment Individuals learn by imitating others who receive rewards or punishment Memory Ability to store & retrieve information 3 stages of memory formation encoding   storing   retrieving Encoding  – getting information in 2 kinds Automatic   without effort Space, time, frequency Effortful   requires work Studying Rehearsal Recite/practice repeatedly Over learning Spaced over time Serial position effect Chunking
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Breaking info down into smaller units 186117762001   1861/1776/2001 Meaning Visual encoding   imagery and mnemonic devices Acoustic encoding   sounds Semantic encoding   meaning The more we can relate something to ourselves   easier it is to remember Storing Sensory Memory Holds information in its original sensory form Iconic memory   brief visual information Echoic memory   attention to sounds (what’d I say?) Working Memory Temporarily stores a limited amount of information
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