after surgery, and in some cases inferior vena cava filter may be indicated for the treatment of DVT (Huether & McCance, 2012). Diagnosis of DVT is made with history and physical examination, use of Doppler ultrasonography and serum d-Dimer labs to confirm suspected diagnosis (Huether & McCance, 2012). Chronic Venous Insufficiency Veins channel blood flow from capillaries to all parts of the body and back to the heart (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 551). Chronic Venous Insufficiency is most commonly caused by disruption to the valvular competence in the low-pressure superficial venous system but may also be caused by valvular incompetence in the high- pressure deep venous system, or in rare occurrences in both (Weiss, & Izaguirre-Anaribe, 2017). Also, CVI may be caused by a congenital absence of venous valves. CVI is commonly found in patients that stand for extended periods of time, wear constricting clothing, or cross their legs at the knees; these factors decreased pumping mechanisms and increased the risk for venous distention (Huether & McCance, 2012. CVI is commonly found in the lower extremities. (Durham, & Hebert, 2017) Patients suffering from CVI will present with complaints of swelling, burning, cramping and aching of the
4 lower legs and complaints of restless legs or leg fatigue (Weiss, & Izaguirre-Anaribe, 2017). Treatment of CVI is usually conservative but effective. Noninvasive treatment includes leg elevation, wearing compression stockings, and physical exercise. Sometimes invasive treatment is necessary such as sclerotherapy, surgical ligation, vein resection or vein stripping (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 586). Diagnosis of CVI is one with duplex ultrasonography, history, and physical examination, and a serum d-Dimer lab test to rule out DVT (Huether & McCance, 2012). How Arterial Thrombosis differ from Venous Thrombosis Arterial thrombosis is a blood clot in an artery. Venous thrombosis is a blood clot in a vein. With an arterial thrombosis, the blood flow from the heart to other organs is obstructed causing serious side effects. Venous thrombosis disrupts blood flow of the veins, usually in the lower extremities. Arterial thrombosis can affect many areas. Blockage of arterial blood flow to the heart muscle results in a heart attack. Obstruction of arterial blood flow to the brain results in a stroke A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) is a temporary blockage of arterial blood flow to the brain (Arterial thrombosis - NHS Choices, 2017). As stated previously, venous thrombosis is caused by stasis such as immobility, age, and CHF; venous endothelial damage such as trauma and IV
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- Spring '15
- deep venous thrombosis, Venous Thrombosis