Solution for 7 cycles and α 005 t 0025 2447 n 2447 x

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Solution : For 7 cycles and α = 0.05, t 0.025 = 2.447 n = (2.447 x 0.15)/(0.10 x 0.85)2 = 4.3182 = 18.65 rounded to 19 total observations We need 19 – 7 = 12 more observations
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Performance Rating Analyst judges the performance or pace of the worker relative to the definition of standard performance used by the organization Standard performance PR = 100% Slower pace than standard PR < 100% Faster pace than standard PR > 100% Normal time T n = T obs ( PR )
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Performance Rating If “normal” walking speed is 3 miles/hr (call this 100), then rate as 66 if you walk 2 m/hr, and 133 if you walk 4 m/hr The most difficult and controversial step in direct time study Potential conflict of interest between the worker and the analyst
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Traits of a Good Rating System Consistency among tasks A worker who can perform at 125% on one task should be able to do the same on other tasks Consistency among analysts Easy to explain and easy to understand Based on a well-defined concept of standard performance
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Traits of a Good Rating System Rate performance during the observation Worker notification Operator can be rated for the whole of the job or for each element of the job People who are observed have a tendency to speed up Set-up experiments and train the analyst
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Rating Four factors may affect worker’s pace: Skill Use skilled workers Consistency Standard methods throughout the cycle May need some time to warm up Working Conditions Must be suitable for work Effort The most important factor in rating
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Applying the Rating Factor Say that an operator is rated as 125 for a task Selected time = 2.3 min. Normal Time = 2.3 x 125 / 100 = 2.875 min.
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Reasons for Lost Time at Work Work-related interruptions Machine breakdowns Waiting for materials or parts Receiving instructions from foreman Talking to co-workers about work-related matters Rest breaks for fatigue Cleaning up Non-work-related interruptions Personal needs (e.g., restroom breaks) Talking to co-workers about matters unrelated to work Lunch break Smoke break Beverage break Personal telephone call
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How to Allow   for Lost Time Two approaches used by companies: 1. Scheduled rest breaks during the shift Typical - one 15-minute break in mid-morning and another in mid-afternoon 1. A PFD allowance is added to the normal time This allows the worker to take a break on his/her own time
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PFD Allowance Personal time Rest room breaks, phone calls, water fountain stops, cigarette breaks (5% typical) Fatigue Rest allowance to overcome fatigue due to work- related stresses and conditions (5% or more) Consider mental fatigue too
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PFD Allowance Delays Unavoidable delays are considered Waiting for instructions Machine breakdown or maintenance Attending meetings Injury or assist with first aid Union work Reworking quality problems The goal is to eliminate delay allowances If cannot be eliminated, add to the standard time
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