used to record and track all economic sales and activities. Cylinder seals were also used for authority purposes. The art of science was something being studied long before urban civilizations. Calendaring systems have been practiced for thousands of years. The Maya have been using practical sciences for predicting times of year such as planting crops and when to celebrate certain days. Their calendars count a 260-day cycle, a solar cycle of 365 days and can be
THE TEN CRITERIA 5 calculated to form a calendar round. The calendar round calculates the same day in a 52-year cycle to end up back at the same day. Also, science has been used by the people of Chaco Canyon in NW New Mexico. Pueblo Bonito is not only a possible turquoise site but has been studied to be part of a calendaring system. Solstice recordings were found to have light reflecting on a certain pattern during a particular time of day. This was a way for these people to record days, hours, and seasons. The east and west walls also share a phenomenon with the rise and fall of the sun. This appears during the solstices as well. These are high points measure for the most extreme part of the seasons during winter and summer. Other types of calendars could be recorded by the position of the moon. Cheikh Anta Diop marshaled descriptions that were by classical authors. Diop believed that there were language traits all over Africa and science in the pyramids. In Niger Delta of West Africa, he found that black Africans were the first people to invent the calendar, mathematics, writing, technology, and architecture (Fagan, 2016 p. 99 ) . The Maya were no strangers to the calendaring system. From this the developed glyphs, rituals, planting crops, and when to harvest their food. They also used this for politics and social reasons. Days contained their characters and identified the time and what cycle it was in. Mesoamerica used the form of the calendar but used it for things like human sacrifices and ceremonies. The architecture was built on calendars, and massive structure took form in design other than pyramids. Monumental art is something that would have been in public places. The Colossal heads of the Olmec were depictions of the king. They were painted and made of basalt. These came from chiefdom level societies. Other forms of monumental art were in the late Preclassic period.
THE TEN CRITERIA 6 Other depictions were of stone in Stelae of the Mesoamerican. In San Lorenzo pictures were found of different rulers. There were stone, block figures, and carvings of animals. In the central precincts of Tikal, a noblewoman’s tomb was covered with portraits of noblemen that were either related in some form or ancestors (Fagan, 2016, p. 394). In the area were other monumental arts such as statues.
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