Drugs These drugs may be used in the treatment of ARF antibiotics to treat

Drugs these drugs may be used in the treatment of arf

This preview shows page 91 - 94 out of 540 pages.

Drugs These drugs may be used in the treatment of ARF: antibiotics to treat infection bronchodilators to maintain airway patency corticosteroids to decrease inflammation positive inotropic agents to increase cardiac output vasopressors to maintain blood pressure diuretics to reduce edema and fluid overload opioids such as morphine to reduce respiratory rate and pro- mote comfort by relieving anxiety anxiolytics such as lorazepam to reduce anxiety sedatives, such as propofol, if the patient requires mechani- cal ventilation and is having difficulty tolerating it fluid restriction to reduce volume and cardiac workload (for patients with ARF who have cor pulmonale). Battling illness Treating ARF
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White blood cell (WBC) count detects the underlying infection. Abnormally low hemoglobin level and hematocrit signal blood loss, which indicates decreased O 2 -carrying capacity. Pulmonary artery catheterization helps to distinguish pulmo- nary and cardiovascular causes of ARF and monitors hemody- namic pressures. Asbestosis Asbestosis is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibro- sis. Prolonged exposure to airborne asbestos particles causes pleural plaques and tumors of the pleura and peritoneum. As- bestosis may develop 15 to 20 years after the period of regular ex- posure to asbestos has ended. (See A close look at asbestosis .) A carcinogenic coworker Asbestos is a potent cocarcinogen, increasing a cigarette smoker’s risk for lung cancer. An asbestos worker who smokes is 90 times more likely to develop lung cancer than a smoker who has never worked with asbestos. How it happens Asbestosis is caused by prolonged inhalation of asbestos fibers. People at high risk in- clude workers in the mining, milling, con- struction, fireproofing, and textile industries. Asbestos is also used in paints, plastics, and brake and clutch linings. Family members of asbestos work- ers may develop asbestosis from exposure to stray fibers shaken off the workers’ clothing. The general public may be exposed to fibrous asbestos dust in deterio- rating buildings or in waste piles from asbestos plants. The best info on asbestosis Here’s what happens in asbestosis: Inhaled asbestos fibers travel down the airway and penetrate respiratory bronchioles and alveolar walls. Fibers become encased in a brown, iron-rich, proteinlike sheath in sputum or lung tissue. Interstitial fibrosis may develop in lower lung zones, affecting lung parenchyma and the pleurae. 82 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM A close look at asbestosis After years of exposure to asbestos, healthy lung tissue progresses from simple asbestosis to massive pulmonary fi- brosis, as shown below. Simple asbestosis Progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis Asbestosis occurs when lung spaces become filled with asbestos fibers.
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Raised hyaline plaques may form in the parietal pleura, the dia- phragm, and the pleura adjacent to the pericardium.
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