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16.Influenza

Diagnosis • difficult to confirm if an influenza

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Unformatted text preview: Diagnosis • Difficult to confirm - If an Influenza Epidemic is in progress, it ʼ s probably Influenza - If the Constitutional Symptoms (“Malaise”) overwhelm the Localized Symptoms, it ʼ s probably Influenza • Cold: “My Nose is runny and my Throat is scratchy.” • Influenza: “Aaack!” • Influenza can be diagnosed via Serology Treatment • For the average Healthy Individual: - Rest (Complete Recovery takes about 2 Weeks) • For High-Risk Groups (People with Heart/Respiratory Problems) - Amantadines (“M 2 Inhibitors”) help alleviate the Symptoms - Amantadine, Rimantadine - Neuriminidase Inhibitors (NAIs) - Oseltamivir (Tamiflu™), Zanamivir (Relenza™) Influenza Page 4 Prevention • Influenza Vaccines (70-90% Effective) - Split Virus Vaccines (Trivalent Inactivated Vaccine/TIV) Consist of purified Hemagglutininin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Fluzone™ is a concentrated (4X) Vaccine that confers greater Protection for People 65 Years and older. - Intradermal Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal™) Fluzone Intradermal™ is injected into the Skin using a much smaller Needle. It activates Dendritic Cells. - Attenuated Virus Vaccine (FluMist™) FluMist™ is administered by being sprayed up the Nose. It consists of Attenuated, Temperature-Sensitive Virus Strains that can only replicate in the Nose, where the Temperature is below 37°C. Antigenic Drift (Type A and Type B) • Minor Changes in HA and NA Genes causing minor Influenza Epidemics that occur approximately every 2 Years. - Caused by spontaneous Point Mutations • RNA Polymerases cannot Proofread so there is no way for these Mutations to be corrected • The Immune System is a bit slow to catch onto these Changes, so you ʼ ll catch a very mild Flu Antigenic Shift (Type A only) • Major Changes in HA and NA causing Influenza Pandemics that occur approximately every 10 to 15 Years - Caused by the Genetic Re-assortment between Virus Particles from different Species Hosts • Pigs, Horses, Ducks, and Chickens are common “Mixing Vessels.” • The Immune System is Blind-sided by these Changes, so you ʼ ll probably catch the Flu Impact • Since Influenza Epidemics involve very large Numbers of Individuals, the Number of Deaths can be surprising (~55 Million in 1918) Influenza Page 5 Type A Influenza Virus 100 nm Diameter, 13.2 Kb Negative Sense Splint RNA Virus • Each Particle consists of: - “Shrink-Wrapped” Lipid Bilaer Envelope containing: • Hemagglutinin (HA) - Hemagglutinin is a Rod-shaped Trimer. - Each Virus Particle contains approximately 500 HA Trimers. There are 16 different Types of HA. All 500 of these HAs will be the same Type of HA....
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Diagnosis • Difficult to confirm If an Influenza Epidemic...

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