Baekje was founded by Onjo, a Goguryeo prince and the third son of
the founder of Goguryeo, in 18 BC.
The Sanguo Zhi mentions Baekje as a member of the Mahan
confederacy in the Han River basin (near present-day Seoul). It
expanded into the southwest (Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces) of
the peninsula and became a signi
cant political and military power.
In the process, Baekje came into
erce confrontation with Goguryeo
and the Chinese commanderies in the vicinity of its territorial
At its peak in the 4th century during the reign of King Geunchogo,
Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the
western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and
Jeolla, as well as part of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralized government. Baekje
acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern
Dynasties during the expansion of its territory.
Baekje was a great maritime power;
its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East
Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental
culture to Japan.
Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural developments,
such as Chinese characters, Buddhism, iron-making, advanced pottery, and ceremonial burial to
Other aspects of culture were also transmitted when
the Baekje court retreated to Japan after Baekje was conquered by the Silla
Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, especially during the time of
but was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined.
Ultimately, Baekje was defeated by a coalition of Silla and Tang forces in 660.
According to legend, the kingdom of Silla began with the uni
cation of six chiefdoms of the
Jinhan confederacy by Bak Hyeokgeose in 57 BC, in the southeastern area of Korea. Its
territory included the present-day port city of Busan, and Silla later emerged as a sea power
responsible for destroying Japanese pirates, especially during the Uni
ed Silla period.