Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

Travel distance 1 1237 maximum distance at which an

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Travel distance [1] 1.2.37 Maximum distance at which an object of defined size, brightness and contrast can be seen and recognised. Visibility [2]
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15 CHAPTER 2 2.0 FIRE SCENARIOS This guidelines sets out 7 fire scenarios and sensitivity analyses that the FSE is required to consider (qualitatively and/or quantitatively), depending on alternative solution(s) proposed. Refer to Part 2 of the SFEG to determine which fire scenarios to apply. These scenarios may not be exhaustive and that FSE would need to consider other scenarios where appropriate. 2.1 Design scenario representative of a typical fire within the occupancy considering its usage, population size, fuel load and ignition sources, ventilation, means of escape provisions, etc. All fire safety measures, including but not limited to, engineered smoke control systems, fire detection, means of escape, are assumed to be available and working as designed. Depending on the scope of the performance-based assessment, there could be more than one base case design fire scenario. The design fire locations shall be located at the most onerous/credible locations applicable to the Performance based design. Base case 2.2 Sensitivity studies shall be conducted to test the robustness of the proposed design. These mandatory studies as described below (where applicable) may not be exhaustive and the FSE is to propose all relevant sensitivity analysis in the FEDB. SCDF may also request for other sensitivity analyses to be conducted, depending on the nature of the project and the extent of the alternative solutions. Sensitivity Studies 2.2.1 Sensitivity Test 1 Buoyancy Buoyancy Test (a) A 1 MW fire to test buoyancy for natural smoke control system. 2.2.2 Sensitivity Test 2 Wind Effects Wind Effects (a) One side of vents (side with the most openings) is assumed to fail (ie vents modelled to be in closed position or subjected to wind effects that may negatively affect the vents) for natural smoke control system.
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16 2.2.3 Sensitivity Test 3 Fan efficiency Fan failure (a) To assume n-1 fans operation during fire mode, where n is the number of duty fans). (Not required if there are 2 or more standby fans) (b) Alternatively, a 20% increase in fire size (peak HRR and fire perimeter) can be adopted in lieu of fan failure. 2.2.4 Sensitivity Test 4 Increase in fire growth rate Increase in fire growth rate (a) Fire is assumed to grow at a faster rate using t-squared fire e.g. from medium to fast or from fast to ultrafast. 2.2.5 Sensitivity Test 5 Fire rendering an exit unusable Fire Blocks Exit / Exit Unavailable (a) A fire starts in an escape route and can potentially block an exit. Applies to premises/spaces where there are at least 2 exits. (b) FSE should consider the largest exit or the most-utilized exit to be blocked.
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  • Three '18
  • Dr. Anthony
  • Microelectronics, Active fire protection, Fire protection, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat release rate, FSE

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