Enhance the security of key pre distribution liu and

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enhance the security of key pre-distribution, Liu and Ning and Du et al. independently developed two similar threshold-based schemes. 9,10 Chan and Perrig also developed a protocol named PIKE for key establishment by using peer sensor nodes as trusted intermediaries. 11 However, due to the resource constraints (especially the limited battery power) on sensor nodes and the threat of compromised nodes, none of the above key management schemes can guarantee the security of the keying materials used for the communication between sensor nodes. It is always desirable to improve the security and performance of key management. In many applications, long distance peer-to-peer secure communication between sensor nodes is rare. Even if it is needed, we can establish a key using a number of intermediate nodes if the hop-by-hop encryption and authentication is available, and use this key to secure the long distance peer- to-peer communication. Thus, one primary goal of secure communication is to provide authentication and/or encryption between neighbor sensor nodes. Therefore, the most important information that can benefit key pre-distribution is the knowledge about which nodes are most likely to be the neighbors of each sensor node . Once this information is available, we can pre-distribute pairwise keys for the pairs of sensor nodes that are likely to be neighbors. As a result, a sensor node will have a high probability of establishing a pairwise key with its neighbor. Several techniques have been proposed recently to take advantage of the sensors’ location information to improve key pre-distribution. 12–16 Some of them assume that the locations of sensor nodes can be pre-determined to a certain extent , while some assume that the locations of sensor nodes can be discovered after deployment . However, in practice, it could be difficult, and sometimes impossible, to guarantee that the sensor nodes are deployed precisely at expected locations. Besides, the sensor’s discovered location is usually not trustworthy in hostile environments. 17–22 In this chapter, we develop a group-based deployment model to improve the security and performance of key pre-distribution. In this model, the sensor nodes are required to be deployed in groups. A critical observation is that the sensor nodes in the same group are usually close to each other after deployment . We believe that this group-based deployment model is more practical than the aforementioned models since it requires less efforts in the deployment of sensor nodes, while still providing an opportunity to improve key pre-distribution. Copyright © 2010. World Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
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