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Compromise (Position Accommodation)A compromise solution that would not furtherthe interests of either Samantha or Emma would be to stay in their current location and tomaintain the status quo. Compromises are not considered to be a good integration strategyexcept for circumstances where parties are very entrenched and it is unlikely that a morecomprehensive agreement is possible.Logroll (Position Accommodation)Successful logrolling requires the parties to find morethan one issue in conflict and to have different priorities for those issues (Tajima and Fraser,2001). The parties then agree to trade off among these issues so that one party achieves ahighly preferred outcome on the first issue and the other person achieves a highly preferredoutcome on the second issue. If the parties do in fact have different preferences on differentKey Steps in the Integrative Negotiation Process85
issues and each party gets his or her most preferred outcome on a high-priority issue, theneach should receive more and the joint outcomes should be higher (Moran and Ritov, 2002).For instance, the Advanced Management Consulting could lease the downtown location andgive Emma the bigger office. Samantha would get her preferred location, which is more im-portant to her, and Emma would receive better working space, which is more important to her.Logrolling is frequently done by trial and error—as part of the process of experiment-ing with various packages of offers that will satisfy everyone involved. The parties mustfirst establish which issues are at stake and then decide their individual priorities on theseissues. If there are already at least two issues on the table, then any combination of two ormore issues may be suitable for logrolling. Research suggests that negotiators reach betteragreements as the number of issues being negotiated increases (Naquin, 2002). Negotiatorsatisfaction may be less when more issues are negotiated, however, because negotiators be-lieve that they could have done better on one or more issues. (Negotiator cognition and sat-isfaction is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.) If it appears initially that only one issueis at stake, the parties may need to engage in “unbundling” or “unlinking,” which is theprocess of separating a single issue into two or more issues so that the logrolling may be-gin (Lax and Sebenius, 1986; Pruitt, 1981). Additional issues of concern may also be gen-erated through the brainstorming processes described later.Finally, research by Mannix, Tinsley and Bazerman (1995) suggests that logrolling isless likely in a series of negotiations when the negotiator believes that there is a higherprobability that the negotiator representing the other firm will be changed in someone else.