antibiotic resistance has been reported There is no vaccine against the plague at this time“Formalin-killed whole-cell vaccines used in the United States from 1946 onward werediscontinued after 1999” Even though this vaccine protected against the bubonic plague,it provided little protection against the pneumonic or septicemic plague and there whereharmful side effects Conclusion In conclusion the bubonic plague has produced many changes in human societiesthroughout historyThe Black Death spread across Europe in the years 1346-53In the 1800s researchers discovered the epidemic was caused by the bacteria Yersiniapestisthat is spread by a flea. This flea prays on small rodents and humans are accidentalhosts. When humans are bitten by a flea infected by the bacteria, they will develop buboes, highfever, delirium, and hemorrhages in the skin that result in black spots Other forms of the plague include pneumonic plague and septicemic plague. Pneumonic plague occurs when the plague bacteria settles in the lungs and it results in aviolent and bloody coughSepticemic plague can be characterized by massive hemmoraging, chills, headache, andfever but unlike the bubonic plague buboes are not present. This type of the plague occurswhen the bacteria goes straight through the blood stream to the liver, spleen, and thelungs. For many centuries doctors did not know how to treat the plague and in trying to treat it,they only spread it furtherIn the 1940s antibiotics were developed which can be used to prevent and kill the plaguebacteria
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