Implicit memory : Perceptual representation system (PRS)Definition: memory system containing specific representations of events that is hypothesized to be responsible for priming effects.Priming: unconscious process through which recognition of a particular item is facilitated by previous exposure to an identical or related item, making our response quickerand more accurate.*Prime = first item in priming exp. *Probe = second item in priming exp.Study : lexical decision taskTask requiring participants to determine whether a presented string of letters is a word or not.Results : recognition of lexically correct words was faster when participants had already been exposed to words typically associated with target.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Implicit memory : Procedural memoryDefinition : memory system concerned with knowing how to do things, located in prefrontal context and basal ganglia. Is a form of…Tacit knowledge : knowing how to do something without being able to say exactly what it is that you know.*Physical skills are not the only ones stored in procedural memory : so are many cognitive skills, including the ability to read.Episodic memoryYoung children (before age 4 to 6) do not experience anything that adult would call episodic memory : hypothesis that episodic memory develops out of semantic memory.Only after that age they can discriminate between things they have known for a while and things they learned recently.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
The Butcher on the Bus PhenomenonDefinition : the feeling of knowing a person without being able to remember the circumstances of any previous meeting or anything else about him or her. « feeling of knowing absence of episodic memory »Tip-of-the-Tongue PhenomenonDefinition : knowing that you know something without quite being able to recall it.In TOT state, people are often able to a generic recall: knowing some aspects of target word, like first letter, number of syllables, etc. without being able to retrieve the word itself. Also more likely to recall words that are closely relatedto the target word, either in sound or meaning.TOT happens more under stress and often the word is recalled once the person stops thinking about it. Links with aerobic fitness in older people.More often with: low frequency terms or proper names (names of people or places).Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Forgetting is adaptiveIt is important that you can use what you learned from the past to help with decision making. Forgetting forces you to…a)Update informationb)Generalize what you learnedThe Google EffectRemembering trivia statements (E.g. an ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain) by typing the statements on a computer (for statements that could actually belooked up online) *more effort is used to encode information*ExperimentResearchers manipulated if a participant thought their typed records would besearchable : ½ participants told the answers would be saved and ½ participants told the answers would be erased.