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which often suffer due to the problems associated with economic and political instabilities, in turn hindering the implementation of sustainable measures with the necessary supports. Sustainable Measures Taken by Brands, Retailers, and Manufacturers 135
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Development of Eco-labels for Sustainable Textiles A.K. Roy Choudhury Abstract The main purpose of the eco-label is to stimulate consumers to buy environmentally-sound products and, in turn, to stimulate producers to produce in an environmentally friendly manner. Labels allow consumers to make comparisons among products. Consumers are also provided with the ability to reduce the environmental impacts of their daily activities by purchasing environmentally preferable and healthy products and by minimizing adverse consequences during use and disposal. Eco-labeling has emerged globally as a differentiating factor in retail markets for textile and apparel purchases. It is a primary tool for marketing to well-informed and green customer; thus, eco-labeling has become very important to the development of a sustainable and credible textile industry. The Ecolabel Index currently contains brief details about 449 eco-labels in 197 countries and 25 industry sectors. Keywords Ecology Á Eco-label Á Restricted substances lists (RSLs) Á Organic cotton 1 Introduction Ecology is the scienti fi c study of interactions among organisms and their envi- ronment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic (nonliving) environment. Ecosystems are composed of dynamically inter- acting parts, including organisms, the communities they make up, and the nonliving components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary produc- tion, pedogenesis (soil formation), nutrient cycling (the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of living matter), and various A.K. Roy Choudhury ( & ) Government College of Engineering and Textile Technology, Hooghly, Serampore 712201, West Bengal, India e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015 S.S. Muthu (ed.), Roadmap to Sustainable Textiles and Clothing , Textile Science and Clothing Technology, DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-164-0_6 137
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niche construction activities, regulate the ux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with speci fi c life history traits, and the variety of organisms is called biodiversity. Biodiversity which refers to the varieties of species, genes, and ecosystems enhances certain eco- system services. Ecology is an interdisciplinary fi eld that includes biology and earth science. The word ecology ( Ö kologie ) was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834 1919). Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Hippocrates and Aristotle, laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology transformed into a more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Evolu- tionary concepts on adaptation and natural selection became cornerstones of modern ecological theory. Ecology is not synonymous with the environment,
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