grandmother’s care than without (the right side), then the grandmother hypothesis would give an advantage. That being said, this equation does not take into account the cost of giving resources to the grandparents by the parents in order to improve their survival. The equation a21ω2(b−ω3) > ω1takes this into account. b represents the maximum efficacy of the parents help on the grandparent’s survival. With this equation, we take the situation where the resourcesthe parents are giving improve the survival of the grandmother effectively and this improves the survival rate of the offspring compared to without grandparental care. This would mean that the 5thrule gives an evolutionary advantage. Hamilton’s rule states that helping a related individual must outweigh the direct cost to self. This is what the equation tells us. If the improvement on offspring surivval
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outweighs the cost of fecundity to the parent, then giving resources to the grandmother would be worth it.This concept relates to the idea of kin selection and Hamilton’s rule. Indeed, J. Garay et. al. uses a kin demographic selection model. It takes into account the costs and benefits of supporting family in terms of survival and fecundity. Helping one’s grandparents can be considered altruism, loss of personal fitness (or in this case fecundity) in order to help another individual. But because of the benefits to survival of offspring this provides, this could be considered reciprocal altruism. Although the paper, in general, is quite easy to read, there are quite a few parts with obscure math and models that are quite hard to understand. However, the central ideas of the paper are presented very
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