They extended their activities by making summaries, setting out problems with answers, and teaching. A compilation of the glosses, the Glossa Ordinaria , was made by Accursius. The Glossa Ordinaria was later published with a text of the Corpus Iuris Civilis , and used as authority throughout the Western world. The Glossators initiated the first scientific research, saved the Roman law from obscurity and contributed to its later reception. Their teaching of Roman law resulted in the study and use of Roman law in many of the Western European countries outside Bologna. Unfortunately they had no historical perspective, and treated the texts as if they reflected contemporary law, and not law that had been codified almost 600 years previously. They ignored the customary law of the time and tried to reconcile contradictions by using fictions. 5.2 The Ultramontani They were from the law school at Orléans in France, literally from “north of the mountains” as their name indicated, and they focused on the Code of Justinian and the practical problems of their time. They used the text as a source for critical discussion, and not, like the Glossators, only for interpretation. They also consulted canon law, Germanic customs and local law. 5.3 The Commentators Again from Bologna, they mainly influenced the law in Italy and later in France. From the 1600s onwards the Commentators’ works also influenced legal development in the Netherlands and Holland. • They adapted Roman law to contemporary requirements by integrating it with the local laws (legislation and canon law).They used the Glossa Ordinaria to establish
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