Gastroesophageal reflux through the lower esophageal

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gastroesophageal reflux through the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) into the esophagus or oropharynx to cause symptoms, injury to esophageal tissue, or both. The pathophysiology of GERD is complex and not completely understood. 2 Etiology GERD is caused by frequent acid reflux. When human swallow, a circular band of muscle around the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquid to flow into the stomach. If the sphincter relaxes abnormally or weakens, stomach acid can flow back up into the esophagus. This constant backwash of acid irritates the lining of the esophagus, often causing it to become inflamed. 3 Epidemiology Conditions that can increase a risk of GERD include: Obesity, Bulging of the hiatal hernia, Pregnancy, Connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma, Delayed stomach emptying. Factors that can aggravate acid reflux include: Smoking, Eating large meals or eating late at night, Eating certain foods (triggers) such as fatty or fried foods, Drinking alcohol or coffee, Taking certain medications, such as aspirin. 4 Clinical Manifestations Common signs and symptoms of GERD include: A burning sensation in the chest (heartburn), usually after eating, which might be worse at night, Chest pain, Difficulty swallowing, Regurgitation of food or sour liquid, Sensation of a lump in the throat. Nighttime acid reflux symptoms: Chronic cough,
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