Antibiotics will slow down any contribution from colonic bacteria NO OTHER

Antibiotics will slow down any contribution from

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Antibiotics will slow down any contribution from colonic bacteria NO & OTHER GASEOUS SIGNALING MOLECULES - Many of the signaling molecules involved in arterial muscle relaxation which blood flow and blood pressure o CO- made from Gly that’s incorporated into heme o SO 2- made from S AAs (Cys) o H 2 S - made from S AAs (Cys) } All gaseous signaling molecules activate guanyl cyclase to synthesize cyclic GMP cGMP activates protein kinases relax smooth muscles and lead to blood pressure - H 2 S may be produced in gut from metabolism of S-containing AAs or synthesized throughout body. Involved in inflammation or cell proliferation, blood pressure o Foods that S-containing gas molecules = garlic - Body makes a lot of NO; t 1/2 = very short - Ways of making NO in the body: 1. Hydrolysis of Arg via NO synthase enzyme NO & CIT (CIT can be recycled back into Arg)
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1/30/2014 22 2. Also produced in GI tract from nitrates in food (GLVs) and get concentrated in salivary glands where they are secreted into the mouth Bacteria under tongue convert nitrates to nitrites via nitrate reductase Nitrates are more abundant in food versus nitrites You swallow the nitrites and then in the stomach with the presence of acid, you get production of NO which can kill pathogenic organisms in the stomach and blood flow to the gastric mucosa This NO production in the stomach from nitrites is enhanced by Vitamin C, thiocyanates and iodide 3. Some NO produced directly in mouth from nitrates secreted by the saliva by acid from bacteria NITRATES & NITRITES - Nitrates and nitrites are naturally present in food ( i.e.- bagged lettuce, hot dogs, bacon) o Also used to shelf life of certain foods - Nitrates and nitrites may be therapeutic for people given antibiotics to wipe out the GI tract produce a lot less NO, & people on H + pump inhibitors have acid & therefore there is no conversion from nitrates to nitrites o Methemoglobinemia: nitrate gets attached to Hb in infants and thus Hb doesn’t carry O as well as normal Hb o Infections can production of NO b/c immune cells make NO to kill pathogenic organisms - Studies in humans in which they’re given high nitrite foods show a blood pressure o On DASH diet, nitrates and nitrites probably more responsible for blood pressure vs. inclusion of minerals or Na DASH diet (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension): get more K, Ca, Mg & Na o Nitrates and nitrites may athletic performance and efficiency of mitochondria
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SFLORES_2/3/2014 23 TYPES OF DIGESTIBILITY - Animal protein sources are more digestable than plant protein sources o More processed/refined plant foods are more digestable than whole grains/unrefined plant foods - We eat protein every day to replace those AAs that get irreversibly oxidized. Digestibility varies; whatever is not digested or absorbed ends up in stool to be used by bacteria - Digestibility: a measure of how efficient proteolysis and absorption are occurring o 2 types of measurements 1. Apparent digestibility: easy to measure; collect stool & know how much N being eaten
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  • Spring '14
  • Knutson,MitchellD
  • Trp

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