Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag
draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several
days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
Ex Parte Milligan
- 1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are
inoperative or the region is under martial law.
- After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that
Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Wade-Davis Bill, veto, Wade-Davis Manifesto
- 1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a
legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis
Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee of Fifteen) - Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th
Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were
- 1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, gave radical Republicans military control
over the South - divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
State suicide theory - The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide.
This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South.
Conquered territory theory - Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part of the Union, but were instead conquered
territory, which the North could deal with however they like.
The unreconstructed South
The South's infrastructure had been destroyed - manufacturing had almost ceased. Few banks were solvent and in some
areas starvation was imminent. General Sherman had virtually destroyed large areas on his "march to the sea".
- Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
- 1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to
secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.
- A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical
Republicans in Congress.
- The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate after the
outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an
outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.