○Crafty, unprincipled, willing to do whatever ○Had little success against Richard the Lionhearted ○Increased the territory of France when King John came to power. ■Seized Normandy ○At the end of his rule he tripledhislands. ○First time a french king had become more powerful than any of his vassals. ○He wanted a strong central government ■Established Bailiffs ●Royal Officials ●Presided over king court ●Collected taxes ●Louis IX ○Grandson of Philip II ○Piousand Saintly ○Ideal King ○Made a saint by church. ○Created French Appeals court ■Could overturn the decision of local courts ■Strengthened monarchy whilst weaken feudalism. ●Philip IV ○Involved in quarrel with the pope. ■Pope refused to allow priest to pay taxes to the king ■Philip disputed pope's right to control stuff in his kingdom. ■Philip IV called for a meeting of his lords, bishops and surprisingly commoners to gather support ●Called the Estates-General ○Estates-general ■First Estate ●Churchleaders ■Second Estates ●Great lords ■Third Estate ●Commoners ●Wealthy landholders ●Merchants ●Played key role in overthrowing the French monarchy during the French revolution ■All three groups made up the Estates General.