Questions have been raised about the measurement of leader–member exchanges in LMX theory CHAPTER 8 • Transformational leadership: gives more attention to the charismatic and affective elements of leadership • Transformational leadership: process that changes and transforms people. Concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards and long-term goals. • Burns distinguished between two types of leadership: 1. Transactional: refers to the bulk of leadership models, which focus on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers 2. Transformational: process by which a person engages with others and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower • Pseudotransformational leadership: refers to leaders who are self-consumed, exploitive, and power oriented, with warped moral values o has strong inspirational talent and appeal but is manipulative and dominates and directs followers toward his or her own values • Authentic transformational leadership – socialized leadership, which is concerned with the collective good FOUR COMPONENTS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 1. Idealized influence 2. Inspirational motivation 3. Intellectual stimulation 4. Individualized consideration • Charisma: special gift that certain individuals possess that gives them the capacity to do extraordinary things • Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers CHARACTERISTICS OF A CHARISMATIC LEADER: 1. dominant 2. strong desire to influence others
3. self-confident 4. strong sense of one’s own moral values FIVE BEHAVIORS CHARISMATIC LEADERS DISPLAY - They are strong role models for the beliefs and values that they want their followers to adopt - They appear competent to followers - They articulate ideological goals that have moral overtones - They communicate high expectations for followers, and they exhibit confidence in followers’ abilities to meet these expectations - They arouse task-relevant motives in followers that may include affiliation, power, or esteem EFFECTS ON FOLLOWERS - Trust in leader’s ideology - Belief similarity - Unquestioning acceptance - Affection toward leader - Obedience - Identification with leader - Emotional involvement - Heightened goals - Increased confidence • Charismatic leadership transforms followers’ self concepts and tries to link the identity of followers to the collective identity of the organization • Bass argued that transformational leadership motivates followers to do more than expected by: o Raising followers’ levels of consciousness about the importance and value of specified and idealized goals o Getting followers to transcend their own self interest for the sake of the team or organization o Moving followers to address higher-level needs TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP FACTORS • Idealized Influence/Charisma (Factor 1): emotional component. Leaders who act as strong role models for followers o Attributional: attributions of leaders made by followers based on perceptions they
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- Fall '13