At the end of the expedition Chiang Kaishek began eliminating Communists in the

At the end of the expedition chiang kaishek began

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in the union with KMT because it gave the party occasion to mobilize workers and peasants. At the end of the expedition, Chiang Kaishek began eliminating Communists, in the so-called Shanghai massacre of 1927. Then, KMT ruled China with capital at Nanjing, during the Nanjing decade (1927-1937). KMT and Communist attacked each other frequently. After the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), civil war between the two parties resumed. After this lengthy civil way, CCP defeated the Kuomintang (KMT) and expanded into all of mainland China by 1949. KMT retreated to Taiwan. 26. Long March : a massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of CCP, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade KMT army. It was a series of long marches, as various Communist armies in the South escaped to North and West. The most well known is the march from Jiangxi province, which began in October 1934 (provinces Jiangxi and Fujian formed the Chinese Soviet Republic under the Communist Red Army leadership). The Communists escaped under the command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai in a circling retreat which traversed 8000 miles over 370 days. The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of Western China and only one tenth of the army that left Jiangxi made it to the end. The Long March began the ascent to power of Mao Zedong, whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party. 27. May 4th Movement: was an anti-imperialist, cultural and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919, protesting the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles. These demonstrations sparked national protests and marked the upsurge of Chinese nationalism, a shift towards political mobilization and away from cultural activities, and a move towards populist base rather than intellectual elites. More broadly, the movement refers to the period 1915- 1921, called the New Culture Movement, which radicalized Chinese thought and politics. 28. Three Antis/Five Antis: 1. Three Antis (1951) and Five Antis (1952) were movements initially issues by Mao Zedong a few years after the founding of the People's Republic of China in an effort to rid Chinese cities of corruption and state enemies. It ended into a series of campaigns that consolidated Mao's power base by targeting political opponents and capitalists, especially the wealthy ones. The Three Antis campaign was launched in Manchuria and it targeted members within CCP, former KMT and bureaucratic officials who were not party members. The antis imposed were corruption, waste and bureaucracy. The Five Antis targeted the capitalist class. Since guidelines were vague, it turned into an all out war against entire Chinese bourgeoisie. The antis imposed were: bribery, theft of state property, tax evasion, cheating on government contracts and stealing state economic information. Cadres and trained workers became spying on normal citizens' business affairs creating immense psychological pressure in which businessmen voluntarily overly confessed so to protect themselves from the government 29. struggle meeting:
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