But the glucose becomes resistant to insulin develop

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but the glucose becomes resistant to insulin (develop) Leading cause of death is cardiovascular, cancer, lung disease: due to environment Our genetics are evolved for our traditional lifestyle, but out environment is so modern, that it can’t keep up. So, the environment change affects our health (not genetics). The human genome o The function of many genes is unknown (42% of genes have an unknown molecular function) o Around 500 genes functioning for immunity defense o Many parts of the genome are still under selection because humans are still evolving o Genes under balancing and directional selection show that the average of some genes are selected for (balancing selection) and that an extreme gene is selected for (directional selection) o Human genome is similar to that of other mammals o Human genome is more similar to that of primates Personal genomics o GMOs- organisms whose genetics have been modified (ex: papaya, bananas, sweet corn) o Gene therapy- genetics are used to help cure a disease 1940- a 4 year old girl in America was the first gene therapy patient; she had a disease that didn’t allow her to fight infections; they took her WBC and put functioning enzymes to fight infections, then they put back her WBC and it worked; she was able to fight infections o Retail genetics- for $99 you can figure out your ancestry; you can also figure out health outcomes o Gene therapy for cancers- immune system cells are engineered to destroy cancer cells o CRISPR- technology that allows you to insert any allele of any gene into any organism (easily change embryos, populations, species) o Genetically engineer ppl Track aging through fossils o Teeth- eruption of teeth is important for determining growth rate; permanent teeth erupt at certain times; in humans, when they all grow is when you’re an adult; the eruption of permanent teeth can be observed to determine how old the specimen is; when the wisdom teeth are fully erupted, that is the age of maturity (bc all permanent teeth erupted) o Sutures: lines on your skull (or other bones) that look like they piece parts of the skull together, when you are a baby these sutures are not fused together. Sutures fuse at certain ages, suture fusion can be observed to determine age and development o Also look at long bones, look at the length of the long bones and the fusion of the long bones at the end, the more fused they are, the more developed the species is. When you are born the ends of the long bones are not fused to the shaft of the
long bones, as time passed the cartilage btwn the two will disappear and allow the long bones to shaft.

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