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19. A counting semaphore ____. A) is essentially an integer variable B) is accessed through only one standard operation C) can be modified simultaneously by multiple threads D) cannot be used to control access to a thread's critical sections 20. A mutex lock ____.
Problem II (3 points x 8). Concepts understanding questions. Keep your answers concise and point-by-point. 1. What is a bootstrap program, and where is it stored? 2. How does multiprogramming ensure OS efficiency? How does timesharing (or called multitasking) improve over multiprogramming? 3. Explain the main differences between a short-term and long-term scheduler. 4. Explain the difference between an I/O-bound process and a CPU-bound process.5. What are the two possible methods of inter-process communications? Which method is faster? 6. Distinguish between parallelism and concurrency. 7. Distinguish between data and task parallelism.