Therefore it is built by and can also be challenged

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Therefore, it is built by and can also be challenged by civil society 3. International Cooperation for Development a. Civil society as strategic partner in the war against poverty b. NGOs are stakeholders Civil Society in Context Living Wage Campaigns - Seeking to improve the lives of the marginalized and excluded populations o Industry service jobs o Many people had low-paying precarious jobs, there is a movement against it o After 10 years of battle they get a living wage instituted Global Civil Society - Historically civil society was nation-state oriented - More recently, more global actions - Described as a “global civil society” o Some of these movements are moving beyond the boundaries of the state, though they remain primary actors Social Capital - The use of the concept o Productive assets but in social terms o Norms, institutions, trust, cooperation Without social capital you are marginalized/excluded Could become vulnerable without these networks “glue that holds everyone together” allows you to meet basic needs, forms the basis of organizations, could be very important in crises and emergencies - It is about social relations o These relations are based on trust and expectations - Mostly adopted by neoliberal approach - criticism o critique: places the blame/burden on the individual o state has a reduced role (up to the people to meet their own needs) o leaving out important aspects of structural issues Ex. Social Capital and Hazard Vulnerability in Santo Domingo - hurricane George - high degree of social capital (neighbours, churches helping each other out) - done w/o government support or international aid o how social capital can be of use in an emergency o how it can help the vulnerable in society
BUT this is putting all the responsibility/blame on individuals There is also a role for the state to play Non-Governmental Organizations - Diversity of NGOs o React quicker to problems because they are in the field, good for the non-material aspects of development (empowerment) o Embedded in communities and give people more voice in determining their own lives Distribute 10-14 billion dollars annually nearly 20% of official aid - Regarded as the answer to limitation of state or market facilitating ‘development’ - NGOs as ‘the magic bullet’ - Limits of development through NGOs Ex. NGOs and Participation in Tanzania - Increase empowerment in women - Focus in women’s income generation o If the women of the household earn more, they will invest in more services for the family (i.e. education) - However, women’s participation was limited by time and financial constraints o Therefore: dominated by middle-class Christian women (not poorer, or Muslim women) o The project falls short of those goals NGOs in Civil Society - NGOs don’t equal/aren’t synonymous with civil society - Reasons why they are seen as key in promoting democracy: o They provide opportunities for people to have a say o They supposedly work with poor and marginalized o They can provide a check to state power - Some limitations
Monday, Feb 12

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