Consequences of some factors that influence normal memories Weaver 1993

Consequences of some factors that influence normal

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Consequences of some factors that influence normal memories. Weaver (1993): similarities and differences between FM and normal memories.
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Next time they saw a friend, they had to remember all the circumstances surrounding the event. Filled questionnaires dealing with their memories of both the friend meeting and the bombing of Iraq. Same thing a few months later. Result: Both events were recalled with +/- same accuracy BUT more confidence about the bombing in Iraq. Confidence comes from the fact that a historically important event was witnessed. Talarico and Rubin (2003): 9/11 study. Describe 9/11 and an ordinary event on the previous day. re-tested either 1 week, 6 weeks or 32 weeks later. Result: both flashbulb and ordinary memories show in consistency and in inconsistency over time FM have more emotion associated with them, but no more accurate than normal memories in terms of content. Are memory traces permanent? Consolidation theory : The theory that memory traces of an event are not fully formed immediately after the event, but take some time to become complete. Retroactive interference : decline in the recall of one thing experienced as a result of later experiencing something else. Rest right after learning allow for full consolidation of the traces. New learning draws on limited pool of resources that may otherwise have been available to consolidate the original learning. Hippocampus : A site in the brain crucial for the consolidation of memory traces. Converts immediate memories into long-term memories. Once the memory trace is stored, it becomes changeable. Recall of a previous experience places it in working memory where it is in contact with other experiences= opportunity for the memory trace to be revised. Reconsolidation : The hypothetical process whereby a memory trace is revised and undergoes consolidation again. Memories = fundamentally dynamic processes. Bartlett’s Remembering Method of repeated reproduction : One participant is given multiple opportunities to recall something over time. Method of serial reproduction : Participant A is given something to remember. A writes down what he can recall. A’s version is given to participant B. He reads it and tries to recall it. B writes down what he can remember and the version is given to participant C and so on. As reproductions progress, they become less like the original. Shows what happens to memories over time according to Bartlett. Rationalization : The attempt to make memory as coherent and sensible as possible. Material that doesn’t fit is dropped out. Unfamiliar material is transformed into more familiar content. Bergman and Roediger (1997): reproduced the results. Schema : An active mass of organized past reactions that provide a setting that guides our behaviour.
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  • Spring '09
  • SHAHINZANGENEHPOUR
  • Bartlett, memory traces

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