• Consequences of some factors that influence normal memories. Weaver (1993): similarities and differences between FM and normal memories.
Next time they saw a friend, they had to remember all the circumstances surrounding the event. Filled questionnaires dealing with their memories of both the friend meeting and the bombing of Iraq. Same thing a few months later. Result: Both events were recalled with +/- same accuracy BUT more confidence about the bombing in Iraq. Confidence comes from the fact that a historically important event was witnessed. Talarico and Rubin (2003): 9/11 study. Describe 9/11 and an ordinary event on the previous day. re-tested either 1 week, 6 weeks or 32 weeks later. Result: both flashbulb and ordinary memories show in consistency and in inconsistency ↘ ↗ over time FM have more emotion associated with them, but no more accurate than normal memories in terms of content. Are memory traces permanent? Consolidation theory : The theory that memory traces of an event are not fully formed immediately after the event, but take some time to become complete. Retroactive interference : decline in the recall of one thing experienced as a result of later experiencing something else. • Rest right after learning allow for full consolidation of the traces. • New learning draws on limited pool of resources that may otherwise have been available to consolidate the original learning. Hippocampus : A site in the brain crucial for the consolidation of memory traces. Converts immediate memories into long-term memories. • Once the memory trace is stored, it becomes changeable. Recall of a previous experience places it in working memory where it is in contact with other experiences= opportunity for the memory trace to be revised. Reconsolidation : The hypothetical process whereby a memory trace is revised and undergoes consolidation again. Memories = fundamentally dynamic processes. Bartlett’s Remembering Method of repeated reproduction : One participant is given multiple opportunities to recall something over time. Method of serial reproduction : Participant A is given something to remember. A writes down what he can recall. A’s version is given to participant B. He reads it and tries to recall it. B writes down what he can remember and the version is given to participant C and so on. • As reproductions progress, they become less like the original. Shows what happens to memories over time according to Bartlett. Rationalization : The attempt to make memory as coherent and sensible as possible. • Material that doesn’t fit is dropped out. Unfamiliar material is transformed into more familiar content. • Bergman and Roediger (1997): reproduced the results. Schema : An active mass of organized past reactions that provide a setting that guides our behaviour.
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- Spring '09
- Bartlett, memory traces