Water is polar. What does that mean? How does the polarity of water affect H-bonding, boiling point, and heat of vaporization?Explain the analogy between glass capillary tubes and soil as it relates to water retention.Differentiate among gravitational water, capillary water, and hygroscopic water in relation to water potential, saturation, plant available water, and unavailable water.What is meant by field capacity and permanent wilting point? What are the numerical values of potential (kPa) at saturation, field capacity, and permanent wilting point?How does texture influence water holding capacity and plant available water?What is a water release curve (or soil water characteristic curve)? What are the axes of the graph?Contrast the composition of the earth’s atmosphere with the soil atmosphere.What factors affect soil gas composition and what are the effects?Contrast convective flow of gas with gas diffusion. Which process dominates in most soils? What are the driving forces in each case?How does soil respiration affect O2 concentrations in soils? What happens when O2 is depleted?How does soil respiration affect CO2 concentrations in soils? How does CO2 concentration affect soil carbonic acid concentration?Compare and contrast the heat capacities of water, quartz, and air.What is latent heat of vaporization? What is sensible heat?Contrast heat conduction with heat convection in a soil. Which is dominant in most soils? What is the driving force for heat flow in either case?
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