Once you find the exemplar that is similar you identify it as being a member of

Once you find the exemplar that is similar you

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Once you find the exemplar that is similar, you identify it as being a member of the same category i.e. seeing a 4 legged creature, you say it’s a dog bc it looks like at least one other dog you’ve seen before Using the previous study, but with exemplar theory: “A robin is a bird” is verified faster than “a penguin is a bird” Could be due to lots of experiences with robins With exemplar theory, it’s a numbers game it’s not because the robin looks similar to your average bird prototype, but because you have many more robin exemplars in your memory than atypical exemplars you can retrieve the robin exemplar quicker Exemplar theory can equally explain why we respond quicker to more familiar birds Evidence supporting exemplar theory from medical diagnoses Diagnostics categorise a lot noting symptoms and observations to categorise disease and determine an appropriate treatment Brooks, Norman, and Allen looked at how expert categorisation is influenced by factors relating to prototype and exemplar theory Method: dermatologists asked to diagnose patients by observing a series of slides of skin disorders. Two weeks later, they diagnosed a 2nd series of slides and some disorders were repeated, but using different slides Question: would the inclusion of a single exemplar 2 weeks earlier improve their accuracy? Prototype theory suggests a single case would be blended in averaged prototype no effect on improving accuracy Exemplar theory suggests that any increase in # of relevant exemplars would improve categorisation performance Results: on 2nd series, experts were 20% more accurate if they were exposed to a single exemplar two weeks before experts used the most readily available exemplar Exemplar theory provides a more compelling account for human categorisation abilities, but prototype theory can explain simple categorisation better than exemplar theory
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The Development of Categorisation When do we develop the ability to sort new experiences into categories? Children begin developing their categorisation skills during the first few years of life Young children can understand and generalise categories Children as young as 3 are able to understand general categories i.e. if you teach a kid a new fact about their pet dog, they can generalise that new fact to different dogs, even if they don’t look similar to her pet Children understand something about category memberships members of the same categories share similar characteristics Children can understand hypothetical categorisation as well Have a deeper understanding of categories i.e. “If I took a toaster, plugged all its holes, but a container in it, and a spout on the side, could it be made into a teapot?” They will generally agree it is possible. If you make it so it doesn’t leak, keep liquids warm, and give it a spout, yes. Children have an understanding of the innate properties of a category i.e. “If I were to take a raccoon, paint it all black with white stripes down its back, and give it a spray bottle that squirts smelly liquid, can I turn it into a skunk?” They will generally agree that this is notpossible
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  • Winter '14
  • Categorization, Categories, concept learning, Categories & Concepts

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