because the effects of climate change tend to vary locally Policies at the

Because the effects of climate change tend to vary

This preview shows page 38 - 41 out of 136 pages.

because the effects of climate change tend to vary locally. Policies at the local level are more im- portant in this respect and the efforts to support learning initiatives seem particularly important. For example, for users of agricultural land, climate change adaptation must be enhanced by user- driven innovation. The climate change research community has often used the notion of climate change resilience, but this term seems to empha- sise resistance to externally created pressures. Em- phasis should be placed on the capacity to create new processes and organisational arrangements, rather than particular products. As is true of the mitigation side, the most important element at the adaptation side may reside in the strengthen-ing of local innovation capabilities. 32 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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2. LICS and low-carbon development This chapter introduces the notion of learning, in- novation, and competence-building systems (LICS) for a discussion of the requirements of low-carbon development. This development aims at strength- ening LICS so that they are reoriented toward contributing to the goals inherent to this develop- ment. Since low-carbon development is a process of radical change, it involves LICS on the regional, national, and global levels. Many sectors and tech- nologies are also involved. We argue that economic growth and structural change are crucial aspects of low-carbon develop- ment and that to grasp its possibilities and dif- ficulties, focus has to be on knowledge creation and utilisation, i.e., on learning and innovation. We identify a number of areas in which innovation (technical as well as organisational and institution- al) would be helpful for low-carbon development. To implement this, innovation policy has to be re- oriented from general innovation support to direct- ed innovation support, which should be reflected in any effort to build or support LICS. We proceed to discuss the necessity of new or changed values, institutions and policies in the im-plementation of low-carbon development. A partic-ularly important aspect is the role of social inclusion in such changes. Finally, we address the critically important issue of connecting the necessary institutional changes to the process of globalisation and to the regulative powers of nation states. The problem is that there is not a functional regulatory framework. If interna- tional cooperation and regulation are not strength- ened and made more efficient, environmental destruction may continue in spite of the political readiness for increased environmental protection. 2.1 Learning, innovation, and competence building systems The LICS concept is an adaptation of the inno- vation system concept to a development perspec- tive. The notion of innovation systems (national, regional, local, sectoral) was first applied to high- income countries as studies of ‘observed phenome- LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 33
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na’. In this situation, innovation systems have often been studied in a positive rather than normative framework, i.e., as actually existing systems. The IS
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