For instance in 2013 marks spencer reported that

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For instance, in 2013, Marks & Spencer reported that signi fi cant progress had been made in increasing the amount of sustainable cotton; in fact, the company claimed that nearly 11 % of their cotton products were Fairtrade, recycled, organic, or sourced from the Better Cotton Initiative, compared with 3.8 % in 2011 12. The Swedish fashion retailer H&M, according to Textile Exchange, leads the list of the biggest users of certi fi ed organic cotton in the world. H&M claims that its plans are to source 100 percent of its cotton from more sustainable sources by 2020. The Dutch chain C&A also has a strategy of increasing organic cotton, as a key role for sustainability. In 2013, organic cotton represented 38 % of its total cotton sales. The retailer also publishes an updated list of restricted substances, very similar to the Oeko-Tex 100 limits. Many other major retailers have also de fi ned their sustainability strategies, which often include commitments related to the restrictions imposed by major ecolabels. 10 Other Labels and Certi fi cation Systems Many other labels can be applied to textile products to demonstrate ecological aspects. In fact, worldwide there are about 450 ecolabels, of which more than 100 can be applied to textiles, according to the Ecolabel Index (see . ). It is not possible to provide a complete review of all these labels here. Never- theless, it is worth mentioning some of them (in alphabetical order): Ecolabels and Organic Certi fi cation for Textile Products 195
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Blue Angel, Carbon Free, Cradle to Cradle, Global Recycling Standard, Gemeinschaft Umweltfreundlicher Teppichboden (Society for environmentally friendly carpets) (GUT) (carpets), Medically Tested (skin-tolerant textiles), Natur Textile, the Nordic Swan, and SKAL. 11 Conclusion Sustainable textile production is now an important marketing tool to address the awareness of more demanding consumers. Ecolabeling systems are a good tool for this purpose. In this chapter, an overview of the major ecolabeling schemes speci fi c to textiles was presented. In general, it is normally expected that independent of the country where textiles are produced ecolabeled products should respect restrictions that go beyond the legislation in more developed countries. The trend for organic textiles corresponds with this tendency. Speci fi c labels have been developed to answer the demands of the market, imposing severe restrictions throughout the textile chain. The large retailer chains are more and more forced on offering their customers sustainable textiles. These companies often prefer to not use any of the existing ecolabels but instead are developing their own sustainability policies, imposing strict demands on their suppliers to assure that the textile products they sell are safe for the consumer, use environmentally friendly techniques, and consider social responsibility.
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