Inflammation bodys response to any insult Characterized by swelling redness

Inflammation bodys response to any insult

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Inflammation: body’s response to any insult Characterized by swelling, redness, pain, heat Real problem for inside an artery because it makes the plaque more susceptible to breaking There’s a measure that can be carried out High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (blood test) When the level is <2mg/L, the risk of heart disease decreases ° ° Atherosclerosis: hardening of arteries Became big news after the Korean War & autopsies showed young men who had died during the war already had significant signs of atherosclerosis Why? Cholesterol is transported around the blood by molecules called lipoproteins (actually aggregates of lipoproteins) Cholesterol is needed by every cell in the body, but is NOT H 2 O soluble o But blood is mostly H 2 O It gets packaged in lipoproteins to get transported o Inside a apoprotein, we have cholesterol + various complexes of cholesterol + triglycerides + phospholipids o The whole thing gets transported around the bloodstream o Many kinds of lipoproteins depending on relative density (lighter ones float on top of others) ° VLDL: Very Low-Density Lipoprotein ° LDL: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol is bound up with an apolipoprotein BAD LDL receptors are molecules on the cells’ surface where cholesterol is deposited by the LDL congregates o Worked out by Joe Goldstein & Michael Brown (eventually got Nobel Prize for this)
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If the LDL receptors are all occupied or there’s not enough of them, the LDL will dump the cholesterol Comes in various sizes & size matters o You can have the same total count of LDL but the distribution of LDL between large & small particles is what matters o Smaller LDL are more problematic because they are more able to penetrate the endothelium (lining of blood vessel) & cause damage where eventually plaque builds up o Instrumentation helps identify LDL sizes Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers View is that the atherosclerotic culprit is not amount of LDL but the size of it (not the total amount of cholesterol carried by the LDL that matters either) Not cheap yet Lipoprofiles which shows LDL particle size May be the best predictor for heart disease ° HDL: High-Density Lipoprotein Much smaller in structure with embedded cholesterol GOOD Will clean up the dumped cholesterol by LDL by transporting it back to the liver to eliminate it ° ° Lesson 3 (Diet & the Heart II) : ° Does high blood cholesterol cause coronary heart disease or is it just a bystander? ° Will reducing blood cholesterol reduce the risk? ° If it does, at what cholesterol level should you start thinking about dietary intervention? ° Can diet do anything to help or do we need drug intervention? ° ° MR.FIT (Multiple Risk Factor Interventional Trial) Studied association of heart disease & smoking, diet, exercise etc After 7 years, the intervention group (who were advised by dieticians to cut down saturated fat intake) showed 30% in S.F intake o Advised to do so b/c of Keys’ study & others o S.F replaced by PUFAs Difference in blood cholesterol b/w control & intervention was only ~2%
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