P, V, Mo, Sn = important dietary mineral minerals Daily requirements of mineral ~ 1g (Ca) and > 1g for other minerals 6g of salt has 40% of sodium = 2.4g, 2X the recommended intake o We are consuming too much salt Enormous variety of salt can be purchased, all of which are NaCl with a sprinkling of other minerals o Motron salt (inexpensive) o Kosher salt (a bit more expensive) o Fleur de sel (12$ for half a pound, hand collected from salt pools) o Hawaiian sea salt o Pink Himalaya salt (18$ for 1lb) Hypertension (high BP) is caused by too much salt o Normal BP is 120/80 o High BP >140/>90 A great deal of sodium is added to food in the production process VIDEO 2 Potassium = K+ NoSalt = a salt made of K+Cl- (potassium chloride) o Recommended for patients with high blood pressure Bananas are known to have a lot of K+ but potatoes have 50% more o Dried apricots, almonds and oyster mushrooms contain more K+ then bananas Relative size of Na and K ions are related to the amount of water that can be accumulated around them VIDEO 3 Iodine (I-) is a solid Iodine has a high vapor pressure o Sublimes as heated and becomes purple (elemental iodine) Deficiency of ionic iodine causes goiter o Iodine is need by the thyroid gland for fat metabolism Theodore Kocher (thyroid work Noble Prize in 1909) Iodine is naturally present in seat salt and seafood Potassium iodide is added in very small quantities (0.01%) to table salt to suppress goiter possibility (need 150mcg/day of potassium iodide) In Kazakhstan, a lot of people have goiter but potassium iodide is not present in salt of this country o NOW added to salt and gioter incidence is reduced It costs 5 cents per year per person to substantially solve goiter problem Table salt and sea salt are potential sources of iodine
o Table salt is fortified with iodine o Sea salt is NOT processed may contain trace amounts of iodine o Kosher salt does NOT contain iodine VIDEO 4 Fe 2+ o 2-4g of iron present in the body associated with heme o We need 10-20mg/day Iron and Health Issues o Iron deficiency = anemia o Hemochromatosis = body absorbs abnormal amounts of iron and little iron is excreted from the body GENETIC Caused by cooking large amounts of food in iron pots which leech out iron in food Excess amount of iron is stored in heart, liver, pancreas and joints Heme transports oxygen in the body In medieval times, it was recommended to put iron nails in wine so some iron would go into solution Sources of iron = red meat, broccoli Vitamin C assists in the absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract o Take iron supplements with acidic juices Iron products = Geritol (1tbsp contains 50mg) or slow release iron tablets (one pill has about 50mg but its slow release) Porphyria = an inherited condition o Explained by Felix Hoppe-Seyler in 1871 o Too much porphyrin in bodies and affects the nervous system and/or skin o Causes reddish skin and excessive hair o Origin of werewolf idea VIDEO 5 Zinc (Zn 2+ ) Discovered in 1869 as Aspergillus Niger
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- Spring '11
- Sodium, Galapagos Islands, Uterine cancer, Uyuni salt