7PTYS_206_light_heat_from_planets_stars

Pytsastr 206 light and heat from planets and stars 32

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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Light and Heat from Planets and Stars 32 Elections can jump from one orbit to another Each jump requires a very specific amount of energy Certain jumps are possible for some atoms, but not others Electromagnetic energy is… Released when electrons go to a lower energy orbit Absorbed when electrons go to a higher energy orbit Specific energies correspond to specific wavelengths Energy = h * c / wavelength h is the planck constant 6.63*10 -34 J s
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Light and Heat from Planets and Stars 33 Usually there’s roughly equal amounts of absorption and emission going on But… emission is in all directions Net absorption of background light as emission is weaker No hot background – then all you see is the weak emission Different possibilities Continuum Adsorption spectra Reflection from planet - surfaces Solar atmosphere Emission spectra Planetary atmosphere limb views
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Light and Heat from Planets and Stars 34 Each atom produces a very characteristic spectral fingerprint Molecules produce spectra lines from: Bending and stretching of bonds between atoms Changes in rotation of the molecule
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Light and Heat from Planets and Stars 35 Matching Lab spectra to observations Determine planetary composition remotely Most telescopes are on the ground - be careful of absorptions from Earth’s atmosphere
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Light and Heat from Planets and Stars 36 Wavelength of light appears to change when source is moving Becomes redder when source moves away Waves are spread out - longer Becomes bluer when source approaches Waves are bunched up - shorter The Doppler Shift ( 29 c v o + = 1 λ λ λ = Observed wavelength λ 0 = original wavelength v = velocity away from observer c = speed of light
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Light and Heat from Planets and Stars 37 Redshifts/Blueshifts can be used to figure out how fast things are moving away/toward you. Especially useful for the Sun Map of radial velocities called a dopplergram Solar rotation means one side is red-shifted and one blue-shifted Small scale details provides info on rising and sinking of material +
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Light and Heat from Planets and Stars 38 In this lecture… Next: Exploring the solar system from the Earth Reading Chapter 5 to revise this lecture Chapter 6 for next Tuesday What’s radiation? Blackbody radiation Temperature and radiation Emissivity Sunlight and starlight Energy for planetary surfaces Reflection Albedo, color & scattering Emission and absorption lines Atomic structure Emission and absorption spectra The Doppler effect
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