Twin studies Monozygotic twins identical vs fraternal dizygotic twins At

Twin studies monozygotic twins identical vs fraternal

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Twin studies Monozygotic twins (identical) vs fraternal (dizygotic) twins - At greater risk if your identical twin has schizophrenia Adoption studies Adoptee risk for schizophrenia remains high if a biological parent has schizophrenia But risk is lower than for children raised by their biological parent with schizophrenia - healthy environment is a protective factor Familial Risk for Schizophrenia (Gottesman, 1991) German siblings: quadruplets with schizophrenia The genain quadruplets all had schizophrenia but exhibited different symptoms over the years. Search for Genetic and Behavioral Markers of Schizophrenia Genetic markers: Linkage and association studies Endophenotypes - researchers try to find basic processes that contribute to the behaviors or symptoms of the disorder and then find the gene or genes that cause these difficulties. Schizophrenia is likely to involve multiple genes Behavioral marker (endophenotype): Smooth-pursuit eye movement (eye tracking) Schizophrenia patients show reduced ability to track a moving object with their eyes. Typical people are able to track a moving pendulum, back and forth, with their eyes. Relatives of schizophrenic patients also have deficits in this area Causes of Schizophrenia: Neurobiological Influences Dopamine hypothesis: schizophrenia is partially caused by overactive dopamine Evidence Drugs that increase dopamine (agonists) result in schizophrenic-like behavior Drugs that decrease dopamine (antagonists) reduce schizophrenic-like behavior Problem: overly simplistic Many neurotransmitters are likely involved Structural and functional abnormalities in the brain Enlarged ventricles and reduced tissue volume Hypofrontality–less active frontal lobes: A major dopamine pathway Viral infections during early prenatal development Findings are inconclusive
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Causes of Schizophrenia:Psychological and Social Influences The role of stress May activate underlying vulnerability May also increase risk of relapse Family interactions Unsupported theories - Schizophrenogenic mother - Double bind communication High expressed emotion (EE)–associated with relapse If you have schizophrenia and live in a family with high expressed emotion, you are 3.7 times more likely to relapse than if you lived in a family with low expressed emotion. High expressed Emotion example: I always say, “why don’t you pick up a book, do a crossword or something like that to keep your mind off it.” That’s even too much trouble. I’ve tried to jolly him out of it and pestered him into doing things. Maybe i’ve overdone it, i don’t know Low expressed emotion example: I know it’s better for her to be on her own, to get away from me and try to do things on her own. Whatever she does suits me.
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