The american revolution o newspapers o broadsides o

This preview shows page 8 - 11 out of 15 pages.

The American Revolution o Newspapers o Broadsides o Pamphlets o Sermons o Benjamin Franklin’s famous cartoon in support of a “Plan of Union”-“Join, or Die” The French Revolution o The adoption of specific forms of dress was a major propaganda device during eh ebb and flow of the French Revolution. The American Civil War o Steam and electric presses o Telegraph and Newspapers o Photography Propaganda in the Modern Era: The Institutionalization of Propaganda Propaganda Institutionalized o Late 19 th , early 20 th centuries: Propaganda explodes o Early America: Rumor, public oratory o The New Audience: The Mass Audience o Penny press & daily newspaper o Mass Society; The democratization of politics Emergence of Propaganda Research o Fear of propaganda and demagoguery o J. Michael Sproule provides us with a useful overview of the emergence of what he called “Propaganda and American Ideological Critique”. Sproule pointed out that the American intellectual tradition was to treat public opinion as “enlightened discussion,” rather than as the European intellectuals’ concern about the “rise of the masses.” o WWI: A “watershed moment” The American government was capable of pursuing an ideological hegemony. o 1920’s/30’s: The “propaganda critique” movement
Almost all forms of communication and entertainment came under critical examination as potential vehicles for propaganda. Thus, news media would be critically analyzed. o Educating the public to recognize and resist propaganda. The Modern Study of Persuasion and Propaganda o WWI and the CPI: Mobilizing the public for “total war”. o Post-war remorse: Propaganda a “powerful instrumentality” o The new social sciences Psychology Sociology Marketing and advertising Public opinion and media effects The effects of Propaganda o The Committee on Public Information (CPI) in WWI led to theories that attributed great power to propaganda: so-called “Magic Bullet” or “Hypodermic Needle” theories. Sometimes called “limited effects” theories in that they suggest a variety of different ways in which the effects of propaganda may be limited by psychological defenses, the limitations of various media, and the existence of counter-propaganda. “Limited Effects” theories Effects greatest when consistent with existing views Attitude change has multiple causes People look for consistency Public compliance vs. private acceptance Monopoly of sources aids the propagandist The “New Media” o Print o Movies o Radio o Television Calamity Howlers and Muckrakers: The American Tradition(s) of Populist Rhetoric Historical Context o The Populist Era, 1890-1899 o Economic and Social Upheaving o The “Penny Press” o The Calamity Howlers Populist Speech o Emotional Appeal o Conspiracy Theories o Polarization
o Demonization of the Enemy o Apotheosis of Self o Ideological Ambiguity and/or Contradictions o Appeal to Tradition o

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture