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The American RevolutionoNewspapersoBroadsidesoPamphletsoSermonsoBenjamin Franklin’s famous cartoon in support of a “Plan of Union”-“Join, or Die”The French RevolutionoThe adoption of specific forms of dress was a major propaganda device during eh ebb and flow of the French Revolution. The American Civil WaroSteam and electric pressesoTelegraph and NewspapersoPhotographyPropaganda in the Modern Era: The Institutionalization of PropagandaPropaganda InstitutionalizedoLate 19th, early 20thcenturies: Propaganda explodesoEarly America: Rumor, public oratoryoThe New Audience: The Mass AudienceoPenny press & daily newspaperoMass Society; The democratization of politicsEmergence of Propaganda ResearchoFear of propaganda and demagogueryoJ. Michael Sproule provides us with a useful overview of the emergence of what he called “Propaganda and American Ideological Critique”. Sproule pointed out that the American intellectual tradition was to treat public opinion as “enlighteneddiscussion,” rather than as the European intellectuals’ concern about the “rise of the masses.”oWWI: A “watershed moment”The American government was capable of pursuing an ideological hegemony.o1920’s/30’s: The “propaganda critique” movement
Almost all forms of communication and entertainment came under critical examination as potential vehicles for propaganda. Thus, news media would be critically analyzed.oEducating the public to recognize and resist propaganda.The Modern Study of Persuasion and PropagandaoWWI and the CPI: Mobilizing the public for “total war”.oPost-war remorse: Propaganda a “powerful instrumentality”oThe new social sciencesPsychologySociologyMarketing and advertisingPublic opinion and media effectsThe effects of PropagandaoThe Committee on Public Information (CPI) in WWI led to theories that attributed great power to propaganda: so-called “Magic Bullet” or “Hypodermic Needle” theories.Sometimes called “limited effects” theories in that they suggest a variety of different ways in which the effects of propaganda may be limited by psychological defenses, the limitations of various media, and the existenceof counter-propaganda.“Limited Effects” theoriesEffects greatest when consistent with existing viewsAttitude change has multiple causesPeople look for consistencyPublic compliance vs. private acceptanceMonopoly of sources aids the propagandistThe “New Media”oPrintoMoviesoRadiooTelevisionCalamity Howlers and Muckrakers: The American Tradition(s) of Populist RhetoricHistorical ContextoThe Populist Era, 1890-1899oEconomic and Social UpheavingoThe “Penny Press”oThe Calamity HowlersPopulist SpeechoEmotional AppealoConspiracy TheoriesoPolarization
oDemonization of the EnemyoApotheosis of SelfoIdeological Ambiguity and/or ContradictionsoAppeal to Traditiono