The fourth source of tension seems to lie on the fact

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The fourth source of tension seems to lie on the fact that study protocols or research designs, the conduct of interviews (a popular way of doing research in Africa), and control of important facets of field work are the purview of the Northern Hemisphere
24 1 · African Studies and the State of the Art or Western scholars, with African scholars in the Southern Hemisphere remaining as onlookers or sometimes as simple paid collaborators, or study facilitators. Relegated to the receiving-end of the competition for funds and control of the research agendas, Africans, therefore, are reduced to what Mkandwaire calls "barefoot empiricists," similar to men walking without shoes in the streets looking for data. Fifth is the West- ern Africanists' seeming tendency to simply dismiss as "irrelevant" or unscholarly the publications of con.tinental Africans by either not listing them in their bibliographical entries or listing them as references but never directly citing them. The sixth factor is the propensity for foreign scholars to think that they know best when it comes to Africa, reflected clearly in their "teleological bent" (i.e., tendency to predict future events) of the sixties and seventies-to use the author's words-as they pushed for- ward their modernizing and developmental theories discussed in the preceding sec- tions. Thus, Western scholars are perceived as constantly giving unsolicited advice to African statesmen and continental African scholars. At present, for example, they claim to have all the a,nswers to Africa's problems, from democratic reforms and eco- nomic recovery to conflict resolution. Finally, says Mkandawire, what irks many Africans is Western scholars' "Afro-pes- simism" or the "CNN factor," which looks at Africa only in terms of crisis and con- tributes to "disdain" and "contempt" for all that is African. Indeed, no longer do these Africanists project the image of solidarity and admiration about which they wrote during the 1960s and early 1970s, as Africa entered the period of independence. To prove his point, Mkandawire lists the most common demeaning terms Africanists, especially political scientists and economists, have used in the context of Africa's eco- nomic system and state apparatus: Pirate capitalism, crony capitalism, nurture cap- italism, the state as a lame Leviathan, swollen state, soft state, predatory state, parasitical state, rent-seeking state, over-extended state, kleptocratic (thief) state, perverted capitalist state, unsteady state, fallen state, underground state, one that "squats like a bloated toad, simultaneously developed and underdeveloped." Africa is described as moving toward its "final collapse, oblivion, and self-destruction." (In fact, some "experts" have suggested that Africa should be re-colonized or colonized again.) To be sure, one could say that the tendency to generalize and write only about problems that affect Africa has hurt Africa's ability to redefine its image abroad. To those who are sensitive to the feelings of African scholars and are aware of the resilient

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