Besides Jefferson’s success in subordinating the aristocratic-learning Federalists and his successful purchase of Louisiana, his first term had been filled with other accomplishments. American shipping in the Mediterranean Sea was guaranteed as a result of the successful was against the Barbary pirates, and Jefferson had begun to show a maturity in his economic thinking by agreeing with this Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin, to continue the Bank of the United States and also to support the construction of federal roads such as the National Road. All was not pleasant for Jefferson, however, as the Federalists and dissatisfied Republicans such as James Callender had continued to spread such rumors as of Jefferson having mulatto children by his slave Sally Hemings. They also delighted in showing how this great ―democrat‖ was in actuality a ―vicious‖ owner of hundreds of slaves. Of greater concern was the development of the ―Quid‖ or ―Old Republican‖ faction within the Republican Party. This group was led by Jefferson’s formerly close congressional ally, John Randolph of Virginia. Randolph
7 and the Old Republicans felt Jefferson swayed too far from Republican principles in his Constitutional justification of the purchase of Louisiana. In addition, they felt Jefferson was coming under northeastern economic influence when he had Congress agree to reimburse those investors who had lost great deals of money in the unscrupulous Yazoo Land Frauds perpetuated by the state of Georgia in its former Mississippi territory. Rumors of morality and political in-fighting aside, Jefferson entered into his second administration in 1804 with more on his mind than issues such as those. The Napoleonic Wars between France and England and their European allies were causing continuous problems for the United States. English and French restrictions on neutral trade rights were bitterly resented by the United States. In addition, the British practice of impressing supposed British deserters who were serving on American vessels was a blow at American honor and sovereignty. The impressments issue reached its peak in June, 1807 when the British warship, the Leopard, fired at and boarded the American naval vessel, the Chesapeake, off of the coast of Virginia. In this incident there were 21 American casualties and four sailors were impressed. The public in all sections of the nation were demanding war, but Jefferson urged moderation. He knew his own policies of reducing the size of the American army and navy to small defensive units had put the nation in no condition to fight a war with England. By 1808 Jefferson had his fill of the presidency. His recommendation as a Republican successor in the presidency was his vice-president and longtime political ally, James Madison.