Slightly more effective than tricyclics Medical Treatment: Lithium Stabilizes mood by taking away the high-highs and low-lows, mellows people
Lithium is a common salt o Primary drug to treat bipolar disorders o Can be toxic Side effects may be severe o Dosage must be carefully monitored o Lithium is a mood-stabilizing drug Manic stage is appealing to some people, some people do not want to keep taking the drugs, therapy is important Psychosocial Treatments Cognitive-behavioral therapy o Addresses cognitive errors in thinking o Also includes behavioral components EX: not staying in bed all day, doing things you enjoy Interpersonal psychotherapy o Focuses on problematic interpersonal relationships Problem-solving therapy Prevention o Social-emotional learning in school- kids learn how to identify their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to prevent themselves from getting stuck in the learned helplessness cycle o Can make symptoms less severe Combined treatments for depression o Cognitive-behavioral therapy and drug combined is not more effective than either alone Prevention relapse of depression Psychosocial treatments for bipolar o Problem-solving therapy Suicides Risk factors o Family history o Biological factors- more/less serotonin, pre-natal (if in the womb your mom experienced a lot of stress or took drugs) o Personality factors- impulsivity o Suicide exposure- when one suicide happens it can cause multiple suicides to follow (known as suicide clusters) o Psychiatric diagnosis- personality or mood disorder Protective factors o Cognitive flexibility Can say the cause of negative events are not just your fault but because of other factors o Strong social support o Lack of precipitating life events
o No losses o Hopefulness o Treatment of psychiatric or personality disorder Precipitating factors o Availability of method threshold humiliating precipitating life event If people are going to hurt themselves they can be hospitalized against their will Double Depression - severe mood disorder typified by major depressive episodes superimposed over a background of dysthymic disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)- mood disorder involving a cycling of episodes corresponding to the seasons of the year, typically with depression occurring during the winter Pathological or impacted grief reaction- extreme reaction to the death of a loved one that involves psychotic features, suicidal ideation, or severe loss of weight or energy that persists more than 2 months (also known as an impacted grief reaction) Cyclothymic Disorder- chronic (at least 2 years) mood disorder characterized by alternating mood elevation and depression levels that are not as severe as manic or major depressive episodes Neurohormones- hormone that affects the brain and is increasingly the focus of study in psychopathology Psychological autopsy- postmortem psychological profile of a suicide victim constructed
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