8 state which energy storage compounds various

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8. State which energy-storage compounds (various macromolecules) are used for long-term storage, short-term storage and transport, and actual use within the cell 9. Explain the purpose of NADH and FADH 2 in respiration (and fermentation). Examine their structure - what kind of macromolecules are they – how are they similar to and different from ATP? 10. Give a general description of the chemical events during glycolysis, pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, ETC and oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis); in particular, know the net change in the amounts of ATP and electron carriers during each of these processes. 11. State where (be specific) in the cell glycolysis, pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, and ETC/oxidative phosphorylation take place. 12. Understand how the metabolic pathways are regulated – understand how feedback inhibition maintains homeostasis. What kinds of molecules regulate glycolysis and the citric acid cycle? 13. Explain how oxygen plays a critical role in respiration; what makes it a good molecule to serve as the final electron acceptor? 14. Explain the relationship between the electron transport chain in mitochondria and ATP synthase. How does the proton gradient in the mitochondrion form? Explain the relationship between the ETC and ATP synthase in the thylakoid membrane. How does the proton gradient in the thylakoid lumen form? 15. Describe the structure and function of ATP synthase. How is oxidative phosphorylation different from substrate level phosphorylation? How does it differ from photophosphorylation?
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