Chapter 23 Adipose Tissue Thymus Heart See Chapter 21 Organs with Secondary

Chapter 23 adipose tissue thymus heart see chapter 21

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Chapter 23 Adipose Tissue: Thymus: Heart: See Chapter 21 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions Secretes: Leptin Resistin (Undergoes atrophy during adulthood) Secretes: Thymosins Secretes natriuretic peptides: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) (on posterior surface of thyroid gland) Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Parathyroid Glands Pineal Gland Melatonin
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The Pancreas Common bile duct Accessory pancreatic duct Head of pancreas Small intestine (duodenum) Pancreatic duct Body of pancreas Lobule Tail of pancreas The gross anatomy of the pancreas. Endocrine function Consists of pancreatic islets Pancreatic islets contain several major cell types, including: Alpha / Beta / Delta / F cells Produces hormones Exocrine function 99% of the pancreas is the “exocrine” pancreas Produces digestive enzymes
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Pancreatic acini (exocrine cells) Pancreatic islet (islet of Langerhans; CLUSTERS of cells) α cells (glucagon) β cells (insulin) Endocrine cells: F cells (pancreatic polypeptide) δ cells (somatostatin) Pancreatic islet LM x 400 General histology of the pancreatic islets. Alpha cells produce glucagon Stimulates the liver to break down glycogen, forming glucose & raising blood glucose levels Beta cells produce insulin Increases the rate of glucose absorption by most cells in the body, lowering blood glucose F cells produce Pancreatic polypeptide Inhibits gallbladder contractions Helps regulate the production of some pancreatic enzymes Delta cells produce somatostatin Inhibits production of glucagon & insulin Slows rate of nutrient absorption Overall, inhibits growth The Pancreas
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