Phylogenetic trees can be used to infer character

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Phylogenetic trees can be used to infer character states of extinct organisms A from EE BIOL LS7A at University of California, Los Angeles

76 .   Phylogenetic trees can be used to infer character states of extinct organisms .
A ) True
B ) False
Answer:  A )   True
77 .   Both analogies and homologies are always used to create phylogenetic trees . In fact , analogies often provide more information regarding the evolutionary relationships between different species than do homologies .
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78 .   Imagine that a researcher has created two possible phylogenetic trees for a group of organisms  one that hypothesizes that five character changes occurred in a given group , and one that predicts only two character changes occurred in the same group . If the researcher wants to choose a phylogenetic tree based on parsimony , she will pick the phylogenetic tree with two character changes as her working hypothesis .
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79 .   Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding phylogenetic trees ?
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80 .   Imagine that a scientist discovers a new , flying species of mammal that resembles a winged rabbit . What can the scientist say about this organism ?
A ) Without any further information , the scientist can say that bat wings and the wings of this new species are homologous .
B ) If molecular sequence data show that bats and this new species share a common ancestor not shared by other mammals , the wings of these two species would be considered homologous .
C ) If molecular sequence data show that bats and this new species do not share a common ancestor not shared by other mammals , the wings of bats and this new species would be considered homologous .
D ) If molecular sequence data show that bats and this new species share a common ancestor not shared by other mammals , the wings of these two species would be considered analogous .
E ) No data could support or disprove the hypothesis that the wings of bats and the new species are homologous .
81 .   Which of the following character states would be MOST helpful in identifying sister groups ?
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76.Phylogenetic trees can be used to infer character states of extinct organisms. A) True B) False
77.Both analogies and homologies are always used to create phylogenetic trees. In fact, analogies often provide more information regarding the evolutionary relationships between different species than do homologies.
78.Imagine that a researcher has created two possible phylogenetic trees for a group of organismsone that hypothesizes that five character changes occurred in a given group, and one that predicts only two character changes occurred in the same group. If the researcher wants to choose a phylogenetic tree based on parsimony, she will pick the phylogenetic tree with two character changes as her working hypothesis.
79.Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding phylogenetic trees?
Page 34 80.Imagine that a scientist discovers a new, flying species of mammal that resembles a winged rabbit. What can the scientist say about this organism? A) Without any further information, the scientist can say that bat wings and the wings of this new species are homologous. B) If molecular sequence data show that bats and this new species share a common ancestor not shared by other mammals, the wings of these two species would be considered homologous. C) If molecular sequence data show that bats and this new species do not share a common ancestor not shared by other mammals, the wings of bats and this new species would be considered homologous. D) If molecular sequence data show that bats and this new species share a common ancestor not shared by other mammals, the wings of these two species would be considered analogous. E) No data could support or disprove the hypothesis that the wings of bats and the new species are homologous.

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