The basic format means that the two outlets of coffee

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the service. The basic format means that the two outlets of Coffee Retailer can be managed with minimal supervisory resources. There is a single-minded focus on dollar revenue, with the consequential neglect of employee development or enhanced customer loyalty. Training Company exemplifies the oppor- tunistic brand management type. The business logic as to why an opportunistic type suits Training Company reflects their purpose of having a very flexible business model, nimble, minimal resources, and rapid response to opportunities. The brand identity has to be rea- sonably strong, to attract tenders and procuring government agencies. Winning the tenders is often linked to low cost and reliable delivery. Costs are contained through using outsourcing to minimize labor overheads. Migrating From One Brand Type to Another Third, we discuss consideration of SMEs migrating from one brand type to another. There may be many situations when the current Table 4 Continued Operations-Driven Type Opportunistic Type ± Top-down and face-to-face communication about task performance about the core values of the SME brand ± Informal face-to-face commu- nication about task perform- ance employed Performance Assessment ± Financial criteria (sales and profits) mainly used to assess performance ± Financial criteria (sales and profits) are primarily used to assess performance ± Nonfinancial criteria related to owner–managers’ aspirations are also occasionally employed Feedback Gathering ± Limited informal methods used to gather internal and external feedback ± Limited informal methods are used to gather internal and external feedback Assigned Cases ± Coffee Retailer (B2C) ± Golf Ball Retailer (B2C) ± Sports Health Provider (B2C) ± Swimwear Manufacturer (B2B) ± Training Company (B2B) ± Sustainable Events Consul- tancy (B2B) ± Resume and Training Com- pany (B2C) JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 16
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Table 5 Illustrative Application of the SME Brand Management Typology SME Brand Type Strategy and Implementation Guidelines Typical Firms That Suit the Type SME Brand Identity-Driven The primary brand positioning stra- tegic aim is to develop a strong brand identity, with internal capa- bilities to deliver customized solu- tions and achieve positive SME brand reputation and brand equity. This type requires viewing employees as strategic resources. Adopting market orientation is the secondary aim. Strategy implementation is guided by the brand promise. Enabling the SME to deliver the brand promise and communicating the brand promise internally are the main priorities. Second, and also important, is to put in place poli- cies, systems, and procedures to ensure that the brand promise is delivered consistently. 1. B2B professional services SMEs, such as consultancy firms. 2. B2C firms servicing luxury cus- tomer segments, and whose brand identity is built on unique internal capabilities, such as of the founder. Exam- ples include high-end jewelry and fashion SME brands, which in later years can leverage their brand heritage.
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