As primitive and phantasmagorical subjects initially

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as “primitive” and phantasmagorical subjects Initially sympathetic to National Socialism Nazis, nevertheless, confiscated 1,052 works, more than from any other artist. Prohibited by Nazis from painting in 1941; worked secretly in watercolor His studio in Berlin was destroyed by bombs in 1944 He was inspired by ethnographic museums, as well as his own travels abroad He admired the “simple forms” that convey power Viewers found this painting to be scary and grotesque Ernst Ludwig Kirchner STREET, BERLIN 1913 In 1915 enlisted as an “unwilling volunteer” became a driver for artillery regiment, suffered a mental and physical breakdown, and was discharged as unfit for military services In 1937, Nazis removed 639 paintings from public collections; the following year, he took own life by gunshot
Psychological experience of the people in this very large over-crowded urban metropolis Berlin was the 3 rd largest city in the world 2 prostituted – fur trimmed coats and feathered hat For him, these figures embodied glamour and alienation – acknowledges that at this time everything was for sale Titled composition – claustrophobia o 2: Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) Named after the popular image of the blue knight St. George Just as St. George was considered a spiritual leader of society, the Blue Rider’s aspired to be spiritual leaders in the arts Franz Marc THE LARGE BLUE HORSES 1911 Despite decorated war record, posthumously condemned as degenerative by Nazis, who removed 130 of his works from public collections Rejected naturalistic use of color and sought cosmic unity of figure and landscape, matter and spirit – on the verge of abstraction Regarded animals as uncorrupted symbols of spiritual revival Symbolically bound to originating conceptions of the Blue Rider group: 1. Horse as vehicle of breakthrough 2. Emphasis on the spirituality 3. Idea of spiritually battling materialism Vassily Kandinsky Pioneering theorist of abstraction Left law career in Russia, moved to Munich in 1896 at the age of 30 to study art Artistic philosophy based on the psychology of colors and shapes Rejected objective representation and materialism Spiritual approach of “inner necessity” = breakthrough to abstraction, around 1913
Pursued a kind of painting that could be as abstract and emotional as music IMPROVISATION 28 (SECOND VERSION), 1912 ° ° Russian Avant-Garde Abstractions Supremacist o Emphasis on the pure form of the square o Supremacy of pure feelings or perceptions o Interest in abstraction o Rejected the deliberate illusions of representational painting o Search for the “zero degree” of painting, the point beyond the medium o Kazimir Malevich Believed that emotional engagement was required from the viewer in order to appreciate the composition New painterly realism” his term – and understood its subject to be the basic components of painting’s

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