Previous research has demonstrated that the concept of the political cannot be

Previous research has demonstrated that the concept

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 Previous research has demonstrated  that the   concept of the political cannot be limited to the state. Rather, the state can be conceptualised   and analysed as a set of “structural effects” which are the result of societal processes,   technologies and institutions. 8 The state is thus not a distinct domain that is separable from an entity called society. In a  word, the state is a dynamic process and assemblage of practices and discourses that is spread both inside and outside of state territory.  The state is not only constituted but also put into action by competing societal forces and   processes within and beyond the state’s jurisdictions. Respectively, state territories and   borders can both be seen as the results of power struggles related to economy, culture and   politics . As Bob Jessop has  suggested, state power ‘results from a continuing interaction between   the structurally inscribed strategic selectivities of the state as an institutional ensemble and   the changing balance of forces operating within, and at a distance from, the state, and   perhaps, also trying to transform it’ .9 This draws from Nicos Poulantzas, who regarded the state as a social relation  and saw that state power is an institutionally mediated condensation of the transforming balance of forces that are not class-neutral  Political geographers interested in state theory have often drawn from (strategic) relational   theory.11 Various weak and strong forms of globalisation  (economy, culture, and consciousness ) have   forced scholars to re-think the changing balance of forces operating within, across and at a   distance from the state, and, indeed, the whole issue of statehood as well . Respectively,  the   spread of globalising political and policy practices has made the spatialities of the state a   tremendously topical issue since the 1990s . Yet  there is no reason to take for granted the   prevailing ideas about globalisation replacing the territorially imagined world with one of   networks and flows . The neoliberal idea of the rise of a borderless world, so popular in the 1990s, declared the death of the  nation-state prematurely . Globalisation is , as Saskia Sassen suggests,  partly endogenous to the national   rather than the external, and respectively the “global” can be conceptualised as partly   inhabiting the “national” and the “local ”.  Although state borders still have a role to play,   new borderings cut across such borders and become evident both globally and within   national territories .12 Many of the articles in the special section scrutinise this phenomenon in different spatial contexts.
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  • Spring '12
  • None
  • sovereign power, bare life, juridical–political order, politically qualified life

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