O describe and recognize the kranz anatomy of a c4

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o Describe and recognize the “kranz” anatomy of a C4 leaf. o Kranz anatomy protects against O2 diffusion What is the “Calvin Cycle”? The “PCR Cycle”? What do they do? o Also known as C3 photosynthesis- the first stable product it creates is a sugar with 3 carbons and converts CO2 into sugars and starch What is “photorespiration”? Why is it a problem for C3 plants? o Light stimulated release of Co2 resulting in a net loss of energy- problem because of RuBP carboxylase (the enzyme that fixes CO2) fixes O2 instead of CO2 in C3 plants Why is C4 photosynthesis named C4 photosynthesis? o Because the first stable product it creates is a 4 carbon sugar How does C4 photosynthesis avoid photorespiration? o Avoids it in the mesophyill cells- CO2 is fixed in the mesophyll cells by an enzyme that doesn’t like O2 o Avoids it in the bundle sheath cells- CO2 is split again from the acid and proceeds similarly to C3 photosynthesis What does CAM stand for in “CAM” photosynthesis?
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o Crassulacean Acid Metabolism How does CAM photosynthesis avoid photorespiration? o CO2 is fixed at night by the same alternate enzyme as C4; CO2 is fixed in the form of acids and they’re stored in large vacuoles in the same cell How are the 3 types of photosynthesis spread across the plant kingdom? o C3= vast majority of all plants o C4= mostly in monocots/grasses ~18% of total global productivity, 2,000 species, 18 families o CAM= about 25 families of succulent plants, 20,000 species What is the CO2 compensation point? How does it differ between the 3 types of photosynthesis? o CO2 compensation point is the concentration of CO2 where photosynthesis=respiration o C3=50ppm C4=5ppm CAM=2ppm What is the light compensation point? o the amount of light intensity on the light curve where the rate of photosynthesis exactly matches the rate of respiration. What is water use efficiency? How does it differ between the 3 types of photosynthesis? o refers to the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration o C3=1-3 C4=2-5 CAM=10-40 What types of habitats are each type of photosynthesis adapted to? o How does the optimum temperature for photosynthesis vary among the 3 types of photosynthesis? o C3= 20-30 degrees C4=30-45 CAM 30-35 What is “Chlorophyll Fluorescence”? What can it tell us about a plant? o It is a method of measuring photosynthesis Energy Where do plants get all of their energy? o The sun What are the components of the “solar energy budget” for plants? o S= R + C + G + Ps + LE o S= solar radiation o R= reflected and re-radiated o C= convective heating of air o G= conductive heating of objects o Ps= photosynthesis o LE= latent heat of evaporation (in micromoles per meter per second)
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Explain how a plant can alter different components of the “solar energy budget” to maintain a favorable budget status.
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