Psychology in Action 9th Edition

Psychology in Action

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unconscious which are primarily sexual or aggressive in nature. The controversy surrounding Freud's theories are briefly discussed. 4. Behavioral Perspective - The school of behaviorism that emphasized objective, observable behavior and the rigors of scientific research. All behavior is viewed as a response to a stimulus in the environment. Watson and Skinner were influential figures in behaviorism. 5. Humanistic Perspective – Challenging both the psychoanalytic and behaviorist views, humanism stressed free will, self-actualization, and the positive and growth-seeking nature of human nature. 6. Cognitive Perspective – A modern perspective that continues research interests in how we gather, encode, and store information emphasizing the areas of thought, perception, and information processing. 7. Neuroscience/Biopsychology Perspective – A modern perspective that explores the role of biological factors such as genetics and biological brain processes. 8. Evolutionary Perspective – The evolutionary perspective that focuses on the role of natural selection , adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes. 9. Sociocultural Perspective – Social interactions and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes are emphasized in the sociocultural perspective. B. Modern Perspectives: Seven Approaches and One Unifying Theme - Early schools of psychology have disappeared or blended into newer, broader perspectives . The biopsychosocial is introduced as a unifying theme of modern psychology and today, many psychologists recognize its merit. Table 1.2 highlights seven major perspectives in contemporary psychology. III.THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY – Research strategies are generally seen as either basic or applied research. Basic research is conducted to study theoretical questions without trying to solve a specific problem. It studies behavior for its own sake – simply for knowledge. Applied research, however, utilizes the principles and discoveries of psychology for practical purposes attempting to find solutions to real-world problems. Psychologists follow standardized scientific procedures in the same way as other scientists. Psychologists strive to maintain high ethical standards in research, therapy, and other areas of professional psychology. A. The Scientific Method: A Way of Discovering - Generally involves six carefully planned steps, as summarized in Process Diagram 1.1. The steps include: (1) identify question and literature review, (2) develop a testable hypothesis, (3) select a research method and collect the data, (4) analyze the data and accept or reject the hypothesis, (5) publish, replicate, and seek scientific review, and (6) build a theory B. Ethical Guidelines: Protecting the Rights of Others - Psychologists are expected to maintain high ethical standards.The American Psychological Association (APA) has published specific guidelines detailing these standards. Three important areas are discussed: (1) human participants informed consent, voluntary participation, use of deception, debriefing,
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