Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

Figure 31 spill plume spill plume 19 iii sizegrowth

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Figure 3.1 - Spill Plume Spill plume
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19 (iii) Size/growth rate (refer to Table 3.1) The fire growth rate generally depends on the type of fuel load, which can be generally characterised by the building usage e.g. residential, commercial, etc. In the event a building has different fuel loads e.g., due to mixed occupancies, the FSE is advised to adopt a more conservative fire growth rate or seek a consultation with SCDF. (iv) Method of determining fire size In most cases, the design fire size can be determined by the active fire protection system that is installed. (1) If automatic sprinkler system is installed, fire size can be determined based on 2 nd ring of sprinkler activation Sprinkler protected premises (2) If alternative water suppression systems are installed in lieu of sprinklers, fire size can be determined based on the following: Alternative water suppression system * Pre-action sprinklers Total time taken to activate (i) automatic fire detection system (e.g. smoke or heat detectors, flame detectors, air-sampling detectors, beam detectors, etc) including the time for the water to fill the pipework (water flow lag) and (ii) sprinkler system. Pre-action sprinklers * Deluge system Time taken to activate automatic fire detection system (e.g. smoke or heat detectors, flame detectors, beam detectors, etc) and for the water to be discharged. Deluge systems * Water monitor system Time taken to activate automatic fire detection system (e.g. flame detectors, etc) and for the water to be discharged. Water monitor system
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20 (3) If the building/space is not protected by automatic sprinklers or other water-based fire protection systems, fire size to be determined by fuel load and ventilation area. (4) Annex A gives a general guide to how fire size can be determined under various conditions. (v) Soot yield FSE may adopt a soot yield, which refers to mass of soot generated during combustion divided by the mass loss of the test specimen, not lower than 0.1, unless he/she has justification to adopt other values. Soot yield Table 3.1 : Design Fire Characteristics (Pre-Flashover) Location / Usage Fire growth rate Areas of special/high hazard Industrial (performance requirements also provided under prescribed Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings 2013 FSR 4: 2008) - Depends of fuel load burning - Pool fires (e.g. fuel, etc) will be nearly instantaneous - High rack storage potentially between Fast t 2 to Ultrafast t 2 ; potentially t 3 Back of house areas / service areas Depends of fuel load burning but generally Fast t 2 Retail Fast t 2 F&B (restaurants, food courts, coffee shops, hawker centres, fast food outlets) Fast t 2 Car parks Jet fan ductless system (performance requirements also provided under prescribed Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings 2013 FSR 3: 2008) Fire growth rates are not prescribed as FSE to adopt the following fire sizes (or higher if deemed necessary by FSE) depending on the type of vehicles expected.
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