ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Reengineering is described as considering how things

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Reengineering is described as considering how things would be done if one could start all over from scratch. This term comes from the historical process of taking apart an electronics product and designing a better version. Michael Hammer coined the term for organizations. When he found companies using computers simply to automate outdated processes, rather than finding fundamentally better ways of doing things, he realized the same principles could be applied to business. So as applied to organizations, reengineering means management should start with a clean sheet of paper— rethinking and redesigning those processes by which the organization creates value and does work, ridding itself of operations that have become antiquated in the computer age. An organization’s distinctive competencies define what it is that the organization is more superior at delivering than its competition. Examples might include superior store locations, a more efficient distribution system, higher quality products, more knowledgeable sales personnel, or superior technical support. Dell Computer, for instance, differentiates itself from its competitors by offering high-quality hardware, comprehensive service, and low prices.
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A flexible manufacturing system is the integration of computer-aided design, engineering, and manufacturing to produce low-volume products at mass production costs. In a global economy, those manufacturing organizations that can respond rapidly to change have a competitive advantage. They can better meet the diverse needs of customers and deliver products faster than their competitors. The unique characteristic of flexible manufacturing systems is that by integrating technology, they can produce low-volume products for customers at a cost comparable to what had been previously possible only through mass production. With flexible manufacturing, when management wants to produce a new part, it doesn’t change machines, it just changes the computer program. The JCM identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes . JCM (Job Characteristics Model). According to the JCM, any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions. The first dimension is skill variety, which is the degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities. Task identity is the degree to which the job requires completion of an identifiable piece of work. Task significance is the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people. Autonomy is the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom. The last dimension of this model is feedback. If employees suffer from overroutinization of their work, one alternative is to use Job Rotation . When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee is rotated to another job, at the same level, that has similar skill requirements. The strengths of job rotation are that it reduces boredom and increases motivation through diversifying the employee’s activities. Organizational benefits come since employees with a wider range of skills give management more flexibility in
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