The under 5 mortality rate the crude birth rate adult

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The under-5 mortality rateThe crude birth rateAdult literacyoTable 2.3 – Commonality and Diversity: Some Basic Indicators4
oHealth and education are inputs into the national production function in their role as components of human capitalHuman capital refers to the productive investments in people, such as skills and knowledge, job experience, values, and health resulting from expenditures on education, on-the-job training programs, and medical care.III. Holistic Measures of Living Levels and CapabilitiesoTraditional Human Development Index, HDIVaries for countries, various groups within countries, various regions within acountry, and also reflects the rural-urban differencesOne major advantage of using HDI is that it reveals that a country can do much better than might often be expected at a low level of income, and vice versa, that substantial gains in income can still accomplish relatively little, in and of itself, in terms of human developmentHDI points up that disparities in income are greater than disparities in other indicators of developmentThis reminds us that by developmentwe clearly mean broadhumandevelopment, not just higher levels of incomeHDI attempts to rank all nations on a scale from 0 (lowest level of human development) to 1 (highest level of human development) based on 3 goals or end-products of developmentLongevity – Health IndexoMeasured by life expectancy at birthoLife expectancy, or health, index
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(Current life expectancy – 25 yrs)/(85 yrs – 25 yrs)ie. Bangladesh(65.7 – 25)/(85 – 25) = 0.678Knowledge – Education IndexoMeasured by a weighted average of adult literacy (2/3) and gross school enrollment ration (1/3)oEducation Index = 2/3(adult literacy index) + 1/3(gross enrollment indexAdult literacy index(Current adult literacy estimated – 0)/(100 – 0)ie. Bangladesho(53.5 – 0)/(100 – 0) = 0.535Gross school enrollment indexConsiders primary, secondary, and tertiary agepopulation enrolled in schoolie. Bangladesho(52.1 – 0)/(100 – 0) = 0.521ie. Bangladesh2/3(0.535) + 1/3(0.521) = 0.530Standard of living – Income IndexoMeasured by real gross domestic product adjusted for PPPAttempts to reflect the real cost of living under the assumption of diminishing marginal utility of incomeDiminishing marginal utility states that the subjective value of consuming one additional unit of some given commodity decreases [marginally] as the total quantity consumed increasesoThe additional satisfaction that one receives per additional unit consumed is positive but decreasing, that is, diminishing [marginally]oIncome index6
(Log of current income – log of $100)/(Log of reasonable expected income over coming generation – log of $100)ie. Bangladesh[log(1,241) – log(100)]/[log(40,000) – log(100)] = 0.420HDI Index = 1/3 (income index) + 1/3 (health index) + 1/3 (education index)ie. Bangladesho1/3 (0.420) + 1/3 (0.678) + 1/3 (0.530) = 0.543oNew Human Development Index, NHDIWhat is new in the New HDIGNI per capita replaces GDP per capitaoGNI reflects what citizens can do with the income they receive, whereas, that is not true of value added in goods and

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