This category generally applies to interest-bearing loans and borrowings. Derecognition. A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled, or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability, and the difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in profit or loss. Impairment of Financial Assets The Group uses the expected credit losses model ("ECL") which is applied to all financial assets measured at amortized cost. The ECL is a 'three stage' approach which is based on the change in credit quality of financial assets since initial recognition. Assets move through the three stages as credit quality changes and the stages dictate how an entity measures impairment losses. Stage 1 includes financial instruments that have not had a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition or which have low credit risk at the reporting date. For these items, 12- month ECL are recognized. The 12-months ECL are the expected credit losses that result from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date. Stage 2 includes financial instruments that have had a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition (unless they have low credit risk at the reporting date) but are not credit impaired. For these items, lifetime expected credit losses are recognized which is the weighted average credit losses with the probability of default as the weight. Stage 3 includes financial assets that are credit impaired at the reporting date. For these items, lifetime expected credit losses are recognized. No impairment loss is recognized on equity investments. A financial asset is credit impaired when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset have occurred. When determining whether the risk of default on a financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition, the Group considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Group's historical experience, credit assessment and including forward-looking information. The information analyzed by the Group includes the following, among others: ■ actual and expected significant changes in the political, regulatory and technological environment of the debtor or in its business activities.
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